Adventure Gear, Necessaries and Sundries

Adventuring Gear Wt. Cost
1 Backpack, rucksack, leather 8 £0. 0s. 8d. 1fg.
Barge, River-, for pleasure £10. 0s. 0d.
2 Barrel, oak 75 £0. 1s. 4d.
Basket, hand- (shopping basket, etc.) 2 £0. 0s. 2d.
3 Bed Roll 7 £0. 3s. 4d.
Belt Pouch, leather, 6” x 8” 0.25 £0. 0s. 1d.
Blanket, 8ft x 10ft Common(light) 4.5 £0. 0s. 10d. to£0. 1s. 2d.
High(heavy) 9 £0. 1s. 2d. to£0. 6s. 0d.
Boat, River-, “for fishing” (new-made) £1. 0s. 0d.
4 Boda Bag large 3 £0. 0s. 6d.
medium 1.25 £0. 0s. 3d.
small 0.5 £0. 0s. 1d.
5 Bucket, milking/water -, common 5 £0. 0s. 3d.
5 Bucket, iron-bound 7 £0. 0s. 5d. 1fg.
5 Bucket-yoke w/ 2 common buckets 8 £0. 0s. 7d.
6 Bushel basket common wood-slat £0. 0s. 3d. 1hp.
iron-bound £0. 0s. 8d. 3fg.
2 Cask, oak 21 £0. 1s. 0d.
Charcoal, for writing/drawing 0.25 £0. 0s. 0d. 1fg.
7 Chest, cuerbully Large 18 £0. 5s. 4d. 1fg.
Small 11 £0. 3s. 2d.
8 (iron-bound) Large 94.25 £1. 11s. 6d.
Small 56 £0. 18s. 7d. 1hp
Chest, oak Large 150 £0. 3s. 4d.
Small 90 £0. 1s. 11d. 1fg
8 (iron-sheathed) Large 209 £2. 1s. 10d.
Small 127 £1. 5s. 4d.
Coal, bushel £0. 4s. 0d.
Copyboard, oak, 18in. x 24in. 10.5 £0. 5s. 0
9 Costrel, cuerbully (flask) 1.25 £0. 1s. 3d.
Courier’s box for letters, painted £0. 2s. 0d.
Fishing net, 11 fathoms (66ft.) £0. 5s. 0d.
Fetters/Irons/Shackles men’s £0. 7s. 6d.
women’s £0. 5s. 0d.
Flages, pr. £0. 1s. 3d.
Fuel groundwood, per fardle £0. 2d. 1hp.
charcoal, per bushel £0. 1d. 1fg.
2 Hogshead, oak 105 £2. 1s. 11d.
Ink, 1 pint terracotta flask 1.5 £0. 0s. 0d. 3fg.
Ink, powdered 0.5 £0. 0s. 0d. 1hp.
Ink horn 0.75 £0. 0s. 2d.
Ladder, 10 ft., oak 50 £1. 3s. 4d.
10 Lantern, candle, common 1.25 £0. 0s. 10d.
10 Lantern, candle, horn/mica panes 2.5 £0. 1s. 3d.
10 Lantern, candle, leaded-glass panes 3 £0. 2s. 1d.
10 Lamp, oil, terracotta 1 £0. 0s. 2d.
11 Map/Scroll case 2.5 £0. 0s. 10d.
12 Mortar & pestle Large 6 £0. 0s. 4d.
Oar, ea. £0. 0s. 5d. 1hp.
Oil, fuel, 1 gallon earthenware jar 10 £0. 2s. 2d.
Oil, fuel, 1 pint earthenware flask 1 £0. 0s. 4d. 1hp.
13 Pack-basket 1.5 £0. 0s. 1d.
14 Parchment, 8 leaves cap 3oz. £0. 0s. 2d.
crown 3oz. £0. 0s. 2d. 1fg.
post 0.25 £0. 0s. 2d. 1hp
demy 0.25 £0. 0s. 2d. 3fg.
medium 6oz. £0. 0s. 3d.
royal 6oz. £0. 0s. 3d. 1hp.
imperial 0.5 £0. 0s. 4d.
6 Peck basket common wood-slat £0. 0s. 3d.
iron-bound £0. 0s. 8d.
Pitch 1 £0. 0s. 3d.
Pole, bargeman’s/rafting, 10-20 ft. 8-16 10d. to 1s. 8d.
15 Ritual Supplies, per point of POT 2.25 £0. 1s. 8d.
16 Rope, per 10 ft. 1/2 in. diameter 0.75 £0. 0s. 1d.
1in. diameter 2.75 £0. 0s. 3d.
(“Great Cable”) 2in. diameter 5 £0. 0s. 5d.
Sack, burlap/canvas 1ft. x 2ft. 0.5 £0. 0s. 1d.
2ft. x 3ft. 1 £0. 0s. 4d.
3ft. x 4ft. 2 £0. 0s. 7d.
Sack, oiled leather 1ft. x 2ft. 0.75 £0. 0s. 3d.
2ft. x 3ft. 1.5 £0. 0s. 6d.
3ft. x 4ft. 2.25 £0. 0s. 9d.
Shoulder bag/Wallet, leather 1 £0. 0s. 5d.
Spiking, iron (25) 25 £0. 0s. 8d. 1fg.
17 Tablet, slate or wax 4 £0. 0s. 10d.
18 Tarp canvas 8 £0. 0s. 10d.
oiled leather £0. 2s. 0d.
19 Timbrel common, “fully fitted” 450 £0. 9s. 6d.
“iron-bound” 600 £0. 13s. 4d.
20 Tinderbox, flint & fire-iron 0.75 £0. 0s. 2d.
Vellum (best parchment), full skin £0. 0s. 6d.
19 Wagon common 650 £0. 16s. 3d.
iron-bound 800 £1. 1s. 16d.
21 Wallet 2 £0. 0s. 5d.
Wedges, ea. oak 2 £0. 0s. 3d. 1fg.
bronze 10 £0. 0s. 11d. 1fg.
iron 9 £0. 0s. 6d.
Wheel, cart-/wagon-, ea. plain 275 £0. 1s. 11d.
iron-shod 325 £0. 8s. 1d.
Wheelbarrow/Handbarrow/Handtruck 30 £0. 0s. 8d.

Notes on Adventuring Gear

1) The backpack will be made of oiled leather and will be considered generally weather-proof. The interior of the pack will be roughly 4 cu. ft. and will hold items no larger than approximately 20” to 30” in any dimension (GM’s discretion).

The irdanni will have a version of this made to be belted on about the waist – a beltpack, perhaps – that will hang down over the rear, but otherwise conforming to the specifications for the backpack.

2) The barrel will be constructed of staves of seasoned oak and bound with iron bands. It will stand roughly 20” x 36” tall and hold a touch more than 36 (beer) gallons and weigh about 354 lbs when full.

A larger barrel with the capacity of two of these barrels (72 gallons) is called a “puncheon”, while there is an even larger one called a “pipe” which can hold three of these barrels (108 gallons), and larger still is the “tun”, which can hold 6 of these barrels (216 gallons) and is used for shipping great quantities over long distances.

The cask is a small tippler’s (wandering street-merchant selling drink by the glass) barrel or travelling barrel, constructed in the same manner as a barrel but on a smaller scale, standing about 15” x 21” tall. It will hold a touch more than 9 (beer) gallons, which measure is called a “firkin”, and weigh roughly 89.5 lbs when full. Four of these make a barrel.

The hogshead is made primarily for wine and beer but for larger, usually shorter distance shipments of liquids or for temporary storage such as on board a ship for the crew’s consumption on a voyage. It will stand roughly 24” x 38” tall and hold a tad more than 63 (beer) gallons, weighing about 585.25 lb’s when full.

3) The bedroll is made up of a thin, summer-weight wool blanket, a double-thick winter blanket, and an empty bolster cushion casing and tick with drawstring closures. These can be filled with hay, straw, sweet herbs, leaves, ferns, or whatever else might be growing in the vicinity where the character may happen to find himself with which it might be comfortable to stuff them. The bolster cushion case fills out to become a long cylindrical pillow about 8” across by 18” when stuffed, while the tick is about 6ft. long when laid out flat.

4) The boda bag is made of a tanned and dressed animal bladder, used to carry water or wine, most commonly seen in the Middle East, brought to the West by the Crusaders. The large size will hold roughly 3 gallons and will weigh approximately 25.75 lb’s when full.

The medium size will hold approximately 1 gallon and will weigh about 9 lb’s when full.

The small bag will hold about 1 quart and will weigh about 2.5 lb’s when full.

5) These buckets are largely standard domestic items, made of study wood, bound with stout rope and sealed with pitch, except for those bound with iron. These will contain roughly 8 gallons when full, weighing approximately 64 lb’s (plus the weight of the bucket itself), each in the case of the bucket yoke, of which both sides must be filled for the contrivance to work to the user’s advantage

6) The bushel basket and peck basket are commonly used baskets for bearing burdens, BUT they are also accepted units of measure for various sorts of produce, and these are assumed to have been made in accordance with and on the model of the standards of the character’s native realm.

the iron bound is made of heavier wood to begin with, and with the iron bindings on the rim and around the sides like the hoops of a barrel, is designed to last longer and be able to suffer daily wear and a little hard use more easily.

7) The wood chests will be constructed of oak as noted, or any equally durable and sturdy wood, while those made of cuerbully will be made of the same boiled leather described as serving as armor later on.

8) The chests made of hardwood and noted as being “iron-sheathed” are strong-boxes which are commonly referred to as coffers, being completely covered in large, riveted iron plates. The cuerbully chests noted as being “iron-bound” will be bound in criss-crossing bands of iron and reinforced at every corner with a boss of iron, as well.

These coffers or strong-boxes come with a common lock (DV10 to pick) set flush into it’s face. The character may purchase sliding bolts with hasp and ring closures and a padlock, each bolt closure costing 1s. and each padlock (DV10) 3d., or add one or more built-in locks at a cost of 4d. each. The player may opt to increase the complexity of the locks the character gets with his strong-box at a rate of 1hp. per point of additional DV desired, OR buy locks that require multiple keys to open, at a cost of 3d. per key. Each key required to open a lock beyond the first one normally required will increase the DV to pick it by half-again.

For example, if the character purchased a coffer and wanted the DV to pick it to be 20, it would cost him 5d. more than the base cost quoted on the roster (+10DV x 0.5d. = 5d.). If he were to buy the same coffer and stipulate three keys be required to open the lock, it would cost him 9d. more, and the DV to pick it would be 23, BUT if he were to spend the 5d. to raise the DV to 20 and then spend the 9d. to make it a 3-key lock, the DV would rise to 45 (DV20 x 1.5 for the second key = 30; 30 x 1.5 for the third key = 45).

When multiple keys are required to open a lock, they must be inserted in a particular order and each will only move the tumblers or pierced baffleplates of the mechanism so far. Multiple key locks are commonly used in the period of the game as a security measure among the trustees of various organizations, each officer bearing a key to the organization’s strong-box or strong-room to ensure that all officers must be present as witnesses in order to gain access, so as to prevent any one officer from making off with the organization’s wealth.

9) The costrel also known as a “pilgrim’s bottle”, is the common way-farer’s flask or bottle. It will be made of wax-sealed wood, hard leather (cuerbully, same as the armor), or terracotta (player’s choice, all the same price). Regardless, it will have a small ear on either side of the neck with a slot in it so it may be slung from a shoulder strap or from a girdle. It will hold 1 quart and will weigh about 3.75 lbs when full.

10) Good candles are made of beeswax or quality hard fats (tallow) in pillars standing roughly 12” tall and 2” in diameter, mold-poured as opposed to being dipped like tapers, with wicks of good cotton yarn. They will provide a sphere of illumination of (AWA x 2) inches in radius and will burn for roughly 16 hours with a bright, clear light, but they are nearly as vulnerable as a rushlight to being blown out by errant gusts of wind.

The clock candles are lighter and smaller, of a uniform thickness, and each is marked along its sides with 12 measured horizontal bands, each 1inch wide, demarking periods of 20 minutes (mileways), each burning down in the space of 4 hours. These are intended to be burned in a lantern-like structure of light wood with horn panels on the back and sides to protect the flame from drafts, half the cost of the common candle lantern (5d.). They are packaged in sets of 6, representing the candles that must be burned to mark the even passing of the hours for an entire days (24 hr’s), commonly used to regulate time for people of many different walks of medieval life. The player and GM will please note that these clock candles are used more for timers than to tell the passage of time from hour to hour throughout the days, as the length of an hour changes from season to season unless the locale the character is in is on mechanical clock-time, for the mileways and hours marked on the clock candles burn down at a uniform rate. They can take the place of clock-time if the first of them is lit on the passing of a known hour and all the rest are lit faithfully in succession.

The candle lantern will protect the character’s candles from uncooperative or unfriendly winds. It will consist of a frame and roof of common metal (copper, bronze, tin, etc.) to keep the weather off, with an open mesh of woven wires over the windows in the frame to protect the candle from being struck by accident or purpose, a candle or rushlight, which sitting in a socket built into the base.

For a little more money the character can have a lantern with a chimney and completely enclosed with translucent panes of horn or mica (“isenglas”), unless the character spends the extra money to get true leaded glass, which slide down over the frame on to the base. The horn or mica panels will eliminate any Glare penalties from the candle’s flame within, while the glass in the leaded glass panes will project the candle’s light an additional 1/4th farther, with normal Glare.

Most lanterns will shed light in a complete circle, having panes in all four of its sides, but at the player’s option, a polished mirror-like reflective surface can be substituted inside one face of the lamp, narrowing the arc in which it sheds light to 270° in front of him instead but effectively doubling the sphere of illumination by doubling the effective candle-power. This option will cost an additional 5d. 1hp.

The player will please note that the purchase of a lantern does not include even a single candle.

The oil lamp is a small earthenware bowl with a lip, or a small enclosed vessel with a spout on one side from which the wick emerges, and a small handle opposite. It will hold approximately 1 cup of fuel oil which will burn for roughly 4 hours. The quality of the flame will vary from that of a rushlight to that of a good candle, depending on the quality of the oil with which it is filled.

Rushlights have wicks of dried bulrushes (hence the name) or any of a number of other marsh reeds which have been dried and split down to suitable widths and cut to lengths of 8in to 12in before being dipped in common tallow (animal fats) to make a rather poor quality taper similar to a true candle. Rushlights are made for everyday use primarily in the houses of the poorest landbound serf up to those of the poorer freemen and in the servants’ areas of the great houses, and they will burn only for a 2 to 3 hours each, depending on their length.

Due to the low quality of the rushes as wicks and also the tallow allotted for use with them, rushlights burn with a low, reddish light and are rather smoky, as opposed to the clearer brighter light of a real candle. Providing a sphere of illumination of only (AWA) inches in radius, a penalty will be levied to any skills attempted by its light due to the poor quality of the ruddy, smoky light.

This penalty can be eliminated by employing enough of the rushlights to equal at least one candle, especially when employing a good reflective surface to double the illumination they provide and focusing it in a single direction. It takes 4 rushlights to equal the level of illumination provided by a single good candle.

Torches will commonly be made from knotty branches or tightly wrapped bundles of forage (kindling, straw, sedge, or gorse), their ends wrapped with rags and steeped in pitch, or pine tar. Torches will provide a sphere of illumination of roughly (AWA ÷ 2) feet in diameter

They will burn for about 3 hours each and will not be easily extinguished except by immersion of the flaming end in water.

Beyond the area of illumination described for each, and in the larger, darker and more obvious areas of shadow that they cast, the use of candles, rushlights, lanterns, oil lamps, torches and the like, the characters will be subject to Gloom penalties. The GM will have the details for implementing these.

11) The map/scroll case will be made of wood sheathed in oiled leather and will be roughly two to three feet in length by two to four inches in diameter. In general, these cases will be weather proof, but its ends may easily be sealed with sealing wax to make it fully water-tight.

12) The large mortar & pestle will be of the household variety, of crockery and wood, while the small size will be of glazed ceramic, the sort to be found in the alchemist’s or apothecary shop.

13) The pack basket is a basket roughly 2ft. wide, 2ft. tall, and 1 ft. front to back. It will hold roughly 4 cubic feet, and will hold items no larger than roughly 20” to 30″ in any dimension (GM’s discretion).

Due to the fact that they cannot wear anything upon their backs, the irdanni will wear a pack of about the same proportions suspended hanging their waists, essentially a “belt basket” in the same fashion as the “belt-pack”.

Parchment Size Dimensions
cap 4.25in. x 7in.
crown 5in. x 7.5in.
post 5.5in. x 7.5in.
demy 5.5in. x 8in.
medium 6in. x 9.5in.
royal 6.5in. x 10in.
imperial 8.25in. x 11.5in.

14) Parchment is sold in packs of eight leaves, referred to as an “octavo”, each pair of pages nesting within the next, each octavo being sewn to the next to form the body of a book, to which the outer binding is applied. Each of the different sizes of parchment were developed for different uses and purposes, the imperial being the size used in the imperial court in Byzantium, the royal used in the western royal courts, and so on. The actual sizes in inches of each of these sizes can be seen on the table above.

15) The Ritual/Rite Supplies entry is a catch-all designed for the use of all characters who practice Low Magick for what are, in effect, bundles of special supplies such as candles, aromatic and herbal combustible powders, rare incenses, specially made wax or gum crayons, chalk sticks, oils, ointments, small bags of brazier fuels, and other rare substances that are used in performing ritual/rite (Low) magick. These are the consumable materials actually used up in the casting of Low Magick.

Once play has begun, it will be assumed that the character will purchase these individually from different merchants, Herbals, Apothecaries, etc., according to his needs, but due to the fact that the specific substances needed depend not only on the POT of the magick, the specific dweomer being created, the phase of the moon, the positions of the stars, etc., these supplies will be described in this somewhat more generic manner. As mentioned, these supplies are specific to the dweomer the caster wishes to cast, which must be noted when they are purchased for they may not be used to cast any other dweomer, and they are purchased in points-worth of POT of the magick to be cast. When the character casts the dweomer for which they have been purchased, the number of points of POT of the resulting dweomer must be marked off from the supplies he has. The character may never cast a magick of greater POT than he has POT-worth of ritual supplies when casting Low Magick.

For example, if the character purchased 20 points of POT-worth of supplies to cast “Elemental Shelter”, but decided he wanted to cast it with a POT of 9 later, he would mark off those 9 points of POT-worth of supplies and have 11 point’s of POT-worth left to cast it again later, which might be divided up any way he liked, such as one casting at POT5 and one at POT6, or three castings at POT3 and one of POT2, or five castings at POT2 and one at POT1, and so on and so forth.

When the character runs out of supplies or does not have enough to perform his ritual with the POT desired, he will have to go forth to the market and buy more.

Ritual/Rite supplies may only be purchased in marketplaces or from merchants or merchants’ agents of towns or cities no smaller than secondary ports, chief shire towns, or at major, nationally recognized faires (GM’s discretion).

The character may hire a buyer, a merchant, or merchant’s agent to find and bring him or send to him the substances he needs, if he doesn’t have to time or inclination to search them out himself. In these cases, the character will have to jot down a comprehensive list of the materials needed and especially his requirements for quality and/or place of origins. This may reveal more of his business than the character wishes, however, and the character is also taking a chance on the quality of the goods he will receive, unless the character has taken care to determine the discretion of his chosen agent or factor. The savings in time and overall convenience may well outweigh those risks.

When the character goes to market for or charges an agent to retrieve or send ritual supplies, the player must announce to the GM the specific ritual/rite for which he is buying them, then make a note of that fact for himself.

Characters will only be able to secure up to (AWA ÷ 4) point’s worth of POT in supplies for Low Magick per day of shopping, for each of no more than (AWA ÷ 4) rituals/rites at a time, and will be assumed to have spent the entire duration of the market engaged in shopping due to the great variety and rarity of some of the items.

When purchasing supplies for later use, the player will need to record both the ritual for which they were purchased and how many point’s of POT-worth he purchased.

IF the character is an Alchemist, he will be able to lower the cost for his consumable ritual supplies by 5d. 1hp. per point of POT-worth by making them himself. The remaining 1s. 2d. 1hp. of the cost will go to pay for the raw materials.

IF the character is an Herbal AND Forager, he will be able to lower the cost for the materials for making ritual supplies by 8d. 1hp. per point of POT-worth by foraging what he can of the raw materials for an Alchemist to make his supplies.

IF the character has both the Alchemist trade and the Herbal trade with the Forager skill, he will be able to save 1s. 2d. of the cost of these supplies by procuring the materials and making them himself. The remaining 6d. per point of POT-worth of the cost of these supplies will go to pay for those materials such as gum Arabic, bitumen, frankincense, and the like, which must be imported.

Taking the time for foraging and concocting one’s own ritual supplies may be cost effective for some characters, especially those on hiatus between adventures.

16) Rope of the half-inch size will support up to 2,650 pounds, while one-inch rope will support up to 9,000 pounds. The GM will have more specific information about the damage ropes can take when being cut, or how much they will take from over-loading or from absorbing the shock of falls when used as safety lines.

17) Writings upon wax Tablets can be removed by heating them to a liquid state and allowing them to cool to a new smooth surface.

18) Tarps will be roughly 10ft. x 12ft. square. The leather sort will be oiled and completely water and weather proof, while canvas will be somewhat less so, but still very good protection from the elements. Both sorts will have rolled, finished edges with iron-shod holes (grommets) placed at regular intervals along them.

19) A Timbrel is a common 2-wheeled horse cart with a 5ft. to 6ft. x 5ft. to 6ft. bed. It has a capacity of 16 bushels, but can carry no more than c. 1,100 lb’s. “Iron-bound” timbrels have had their joints bound in iron, increasing their weight allowance to 2,200 lb’s. The timbrel will require a beast of burden of the player’s choice to pull it (ox, donkey, pony, horse), though to pull heavier loads more speedily or efficiently without demanding too much of the beast two may be hitched to it, one before the other.

The wheels of the iron-bound timbrel will also be bound with iron and their rims shod with studs to give them greater traction and to allow them to weather rough road conditions better and longer, while the wheels of the common timbrel will be plain unembellished wood, composed of two layers with the grain of each set at right angles to the other for strength.

In towns with paved streets, the PC’s will find that carts and wagons with iron-shod wheels pay a higher rate of toll for the increased wear they inflict on the streets.

The Wagon is a common 4-wheeled, 2-axle vehicle with a 6ft. to 8ft. x 10ft. to 12ft. bed. It has a capacity of c. 32 bushels, but can carry no more than 2,200 lb’s. “Iron-bound” wagons have had their joints and the walls surrounding the bed bound in iron, increasing their weight allowance to 4,400 lb’s. The wheels of the iron-bound wagon will also be shod with iron, in the same manner as those of the iron-bound timbrel, above.

The wagon will require a beast of burden of the player’s choice to pull it (ox, donkey, pony, horse), though to pull heavier loads more speedily or efficiently without demanding too much of the beast up to eight may be hitched to it, in a series of four teams of two.

These vehicles will be found throughout the medieval world, essential to moving the produce of the farms of rural medieval society and the goods produced in the towns and cities. Their like will be found in every manor, village, hamlet, city and town, and commonly be available for hire if needed, as well, except during the harvest season. Cart and wagon services moving goods AND carrying passengers, a precursor to the carriage services of later centuries, will be a VERY common feature on the roads, with the larger towns serving as home bases for those companies who own and manage them.

20) The Tinderbox is roughly 3in. high x 5in. wide x 3 to 4in. deep (front to back), commonly made of tine, with a lip-baffle for the lid to fit down over to keep moisture out. The box contains a palm-sized fragment of flint and hand-sized striking iron, both of which must be protected from getting wet. The striking iron will rust with even brief exposure to humid air, requiring a good wire-brushing to clean before it can be used again, and the flint will not give a spark at all if it is wet. In addition to the tools to generate the spark, the box will hold a small bit (palm-full) of shredded bark or wool or other light and flammable tinder to receive the spark and get twigs and tinder burning

21) The Wallet is a pair of sacks sharing a common back, designed to fold crosswise at the center, where they join, made so the mouths of both sides can be laced up tight together and the whole sluing across the one’s shoulder with one half (sack) hanging in front and the other down the back, or to be hung from a heavy belt at one’s waist.

Each sack of the wallet will be roughly 12in. wide x 18in. tall x 8in, deep (front to back).

Character Equipment Kits Wt. Cost
22 Alchemist’s complete lab 175 £5. 0s. 0d.
trail kit 58 £1. 5s. 0d.
23 Brewery Equipment
24 Healer’s 38 £0. 11s. 9d.
24 Herbal’s 15 £0. 10s. 0d.
25 Climbing tools 18 £0. 4s. 10d.
26 Cook’s complete kitchen 45 £1. 5s. 11d.
trail kit 29.5 £0. 12s. 4d. 1hp.
27 Courtier’s Cosmetics 3 £0. 4s. 4d. 3fg.
28 Masquer’s Props & Cosmetics 10 £0. 10s. 11d. 1hp.
29 Craftsman’s Carpenter, sm. 12 £0. 2s. 0d.
Carpenter, lg. 85 £0. 4s. 6d. 1fg.
Mason/Builder 49 £0. 5s. 11d. 1fg.
Smith 122 £1. 2s. 1d.
Silver/Goldsmith 40 £0. 4s. 0d.
30 Draughtbeast’s 45 £0. 2s. 5d.
31 Horseman’s 40 £0. 15s. 2d. 1hp.
32 Huntsman’s 65.5 £0. 12s. 6d. 1hp.
33 Knave’s 11 £0. 5s. 8d. 1fg.
34 Lock Picks, large Journeyman 0.5 £0. 0s. 9d. 3fg.
Warden 0.75 £0. 1s. 7d. 1hp.
Artisan 1 £0. 2s. 10d.
Master 1.25 £0. 4s. 5d. 1hp.
WorksMaster 1.5 £0. 6s. 6d.
34 Lock Picks, small Journeyman 0.25 £0. 0s. 3d. 1fg.
Warden 0.25 £0. 0s. 6d. 1hp.
Artisan 0.25 £0. 0s. 11d. 3fg.
Master 0.5 £0. 1s. 6d. 1fg.
WorksMaster 0.5 £0. 2s. 7d.
35 Packbeast’s 23 £0. 6s. 8d. 1hp.
36 Ritual Kit 1 point of POT 1.5 £0. 1s. 10d.
Journeyman 13.5 £0. 14s. 11d. 1fg.
Warden 28.5 £1. 11s. 4d. 1fg.
Artisan 43.5 £2. 7s. 10d. 1fg.
Master 58.5 £3. 4s. 4d. 1fg.
WorksMaster 75 £4. 2s. 6d.
37 Scrivener’s 21.5 £0. 3s. 6d.
38 Trap Tools, large Journeyman 0.75 £0. 0s. 9d. 3fg.
Warden 1.75 £0. 1s. 7d. 1hp.
Artisan 3.75 £0. 2s. 10d.
Master 7.75 4s. 5d. 1hp.
WorksMaster 15.75 £0. 6s. 6d.
38 Trap Tools, small Journeyman 0.5 £0. 0s.3d. 1fg.
Warden 0.75 £0. 0s. 6d. 1hp.
Artisan 1 £0. 0s.11d. 3fg.
Master 1.25 £0. 1s. 6d. 1fg.
WorksMaster 1.5 £0. 15s. 0d.
39 Weapon & Armor Maintenance 8 £0. 0s. 9d.

Notes on Character Kits

22) The Alchemist’s Complete Lab kit contains everything a character will need to engage in the public (for profit) or private practice of any and all of the skills of the trade of alchemy, from the basics of chandlery (making candles and soap) and perfumery, making glues, to the specialty skills of extracting and concocting or distilling acids, combustibles, poisons, and even making substances to carry a dweomer (“potion bases”), or creating substances of inherent magickal power (magickal formulæ). In it are included an alembic and cucurbic (alchemical still), an athanor (an alchemical furnace), an armillary sphere (model of the celestial sphere), an astrolabe, a (relatively) small reverberatory furnace, a small, a medium, and a large crucible, fire tongs, a small hand pump, a small double-boiler, a large wooden and a small stone or ceramic mortar and pestle, a large, a medium, and a small pitch pot, assorted lengths, diameters and configurations of lead, terracotta, and/or wooden piping, as well as assorted glass and ceramic bottles and cups, copper, brass, and tin pots, pans, lids, and covers, a pair of leather and wood hand bellows, such as are needed to perform every sort of procedure and process of the alchemical arts detailed in the description of the Alchemist trade, as relates to the character’s specific field or fields of knowledge (skills representing special areas of study and skill).

In addition, the kit will include a (c. 1lb. or 1 pint.) canister each of alkali salts, alum, aqua vitæ (distilled alcohols), aqua accutæ (impure mineral acids), borax, artificial cinnabar, calomel, corrosive sublimates, white lead (oxide), litharge, black magnesium, white magnesium, marcasite (high concentration iron ore, pyrites), mercury, sal ammoniac, sulphur, talc, tutty (zinc oxide), urine (lye), vinegar and verjuice, vitriol’s, (sulphates of copper and iron), and the like, such as are required to make all sorts of substance tests and identifications and complete every sort of procedure and process of the alchemical arts detailed in the description of the Alchemist trade (as relates to the character’s specific fields of knowledge) up to (CRD) + (1 per LoA) times each.

This kit requires three large chests to pack and transport, aside from the alembic and reverberatory furnace, which must be disassembled and transported by no smaller a conveyance than a timbrel. This kit does NOT include any fuel for either the alembic or the reverberatory furnace or such fuels as might be needed to perform any of the many processes requiring heat of one sort or another. This kit does NOT provide the raw materials for the character to make any of the substances that his skills in the trade of Alchemy might allow him to produce, particularly those whose costs are detailed in the descriptions of the skills representing the various areas of specialty or concentration in study for that trade (Corrosives, Combustibles, Poisons, etc.).

The Alchemist’s Trail kit is a scaled-down version of the full lab, including a small alembic and athanor, an armillary sphere, an astrolabe, a small hand pump, a mid-sized and a small crucible, a double-boiler, a large wooden and small ceramic mortar and pestle, a pitch pot, fire tongs, a small assortment of various lengths, diameters and configurations of lead, terracotta, and/or wooden piping, as well as a small assortment of glass and ceramic bottles and cups, copper, brass, and tin pots, pans, lids and covers, a pair of leather and wood hand bellows, such as are needed to perform every sort of procedure and process of the alchemical arts detailed in the description of the Alchemist trade, as relates to the character’s specific field or fields of knowledge (skills representing special areas of study and skill).

In addition, the kit will include a (c. 8oz. or 1 cup) pot each of alkali salts, alum, aqua vitæ (distilled alcohols), aqua accutæ (impure mineral acids), borax, artificial cinnabar, calomel, corrosive sublimates, white lead (oxide), litharge, black magnesium, white magnesium, marcasite (pyrites), mercury, sal ammoniac, sulphur, talc, tutty (zinc oxide), urine (lye), vinegar and verjuice, vitriol’s, (sulphates of copper and iron), and the like, such as are required to make all sorts of substance tests and identifications and complete every sort of procedure and process of the alchemical arts detailed in the description of the Alchemist trade (as relates to the character’s specific field or fields of knowledge) up to (CRD ÷ 4) + (1 per LoA) times each.

Some of the substances in these two kits are either perishable or unstable and degrade over time, uncertain of shelf life, but all of them must be replaced due to oxidation and loss of purity for the purpose of the character’s alchemical arts if not used up within a year’s time. These may be obtained from other alchemists or from the local apothecary.

23) The Brewery Equipment consists of 1 mash tub with two lead outlet pipes , the ends of which are covered with screens, along with one pump to transfer the wort to the copper (pan), and thence to the cooling tubs and the fermentation casks. One batch of brew will consist of about 216 gallons.

24) The Healers’ kits are designed to address the needs of all characters whose skills provide healthcare, from Leech or Midwife to Barber or Surgeons). Physickers are not included in this because they diagnose and oversee medical treatment, they do not actually dispense cures themselves, or when they do it is after they have been compounded by an Herbal or Apothecary according to his prescription, or by an Herbal or Barber or Midwife at the Physicker’s orders. Any vessels for water or waste or linens or other tools or goods needed in the treating of a Physician’s patient will be the responsibility of the patient’s family/attendants or other healthcare provider whose services the Physician has called for, according to the Physician’s diagnosis, prognosis, and instructions.

For the Barber, this kit will include a large and a small pair of finely made scissors for cutting hair, a comb of bone or good hardwood, a boar’s bristle brush, a mirror to allow clients to inspect their haircuts, a lancet for draining boils and pustules, a couple different sizes of tweezers or forceps for extracting splinters and/or debris from wounds or for surgical procedures, half a dozen assorted plier-like tools for extracting the different types of teeth (in larger and smaller sizes applicable to patients with raw STA scores of 10 to 22), a half-dozen needles and a snode (spool) of fine waxed linen thread for stitching up to 250 BP’s-worth of wounds closed, a half-dozen small glass or ceramic cups for cupping, and three or four small shallow dishes for bleeding, 25 yards of cheesecloth-gauze bandages and binding linens in rolls of 5 yards each for staunching and binding wounds and rigging slings, large shears for cutting them and a small pair of snips, a good quality candle for light and sterilizing, a common “ewer” (pitcher) and basin (bronze, tin, or copper), a half-gallon earthenware jug of old wine (strong in alcohol) for use as an antiseptic rinse (one of the alchemists’ aqua vitæ will work just as well, if not better) to flush up to 50 BP’s-worth of open/puncture wounds, a small bundle of old (seasoned) staves of white pine, enough to splint and dress up to 100BP’s of injuries in which bones have been broken all at one time, as well as a hardwood box with an attached crank for winding dislocated limbs back into their sockets.

The splints may be reused indefinitely, needing to be replaced only as they get lost or broken over the course of game play. The jug of old wine mentioned above must be replaced by another if not used up within 3 mos. time, as it will turn bad, get moldy or turn to vinegar. Any and all herbs included will either be an essence in solution or in its dried form, but either way the sun will rapidly cause them to deteriorate and so must be protected. Essences properly maintained can last a couple years, but dried herbs will lose their potency after about 1 year, less if not well cared-for.

For the Surgeon, the kit will also include a heavy bone-saw, set of 3 scalpels in assorted sizes, and an assortment of spreaders and clamps to hold the incision and/or body cavity open during surgery so the surgeon can work more easily.

For the Herbal, Leech, and Midwife, this kit will also contain a small ceramic mortar and pestle, a pill press, three or four small shallow dishes for making and dispensing decoctions, infusions, etc., and an assortment of roughly 12 common domestic herbal remedies and common medicines or “simples” for common complaints such as upset stomach, fever, upper respiratory congestion and sinus drainage, headaches, itchy skin or rash, diarrhea and constipation, bug bites and bee stings, as well as poultices and plasters of the Herbal’s art for wounds, burns, and breaks to speed healing, and those herbs that are useful for women’s needs to ease their monthly cycle and prevent unwanted pregnancy.

IF the character is an Herbal who also has the Forage skill, he can save the additional 1s. of the cost of his kit by gathering his herbs and making his simples or medicines of common herbs for common complaints himself.

25) The Climbing kit contains some 100ft. of 1in. rope, a hand-sized grappling hook, a pick, climbing claws for the hands, a small hammer and 25 iron spikes with tether rings to string guide ropes and safety lines. This kit can be used by those with the Climber skill to help bring novices along on easier climbs, reduce the DV’s for climbing under difficult circumstances down to a more manageable number, and to make possible climbs that would otherwise be impossible when free-climbing. This kit will also reduce the damage from falls to rope burns and the bite of the safety lines.

26) The Cook’s full kitchen contains an iron skillet, a drop or frying pan, a set of 1-gallon, 2-gallon, and 4-gallon brazen pots, a 2-quart brass dish (doubling to serve at the table), mixing bowls (also doubling to serve the table), a sifter, skimmer, and sieve, a colander, a saucer, a strainer, and a chafing dish, a large and a small mortar and pestle, a peppermill, a hand-quern to bruise malt and grind grain, a small cask for spices and herbs (lock complexity 20), a spit large enough for a medium-sized pig or a bird as large as a swan or bustard, a large iron fork, a turner/spatula, ladle, and four or five wooden spoons of various sizes, a cleaver, a pair of “dressing” or carving knives, a great knife, and three paring and dicing knives of various sizes, an iron pot hanger (tripod with ratchet hook to raise and lower the pot) and a pair of tongs, a pair of bellows, a firestake (poker), a 2-quart iron-bound tankard of the king’s standard measure, a common water pitcher, and common platters and cups of wood and earthenware, to serve 8 people. This is a fully equipped and functional array of kitchenware, with which the Cook character can prepare any dish, no matter the complexity, including baked dishes, though for the last the character will have to find or contrive an oven to use, but he will not be able to prepare a meal greater than 10m dishes for more than 12 hearty appetites (GM’s discretion). This assemblage will require a packhorse to itself if the character is not using a timbrel or wagon.

The Cook’s trail kit consists only of the bare necessities from the kitchen above, and can only be used to prepare dishes with a DV up to 9. It contains a drop/frying pan, a 1-gallon brazen pot, a mixing/serving bowl, a small mortar and pestle, a hand-quern, a large iron fork, a turner/spatula, ladle, and four or five wooden spoons of various sizes, a cleaver, a “dressing” or carving knife, a great knife, and three paring and dicing knives of various sizes, an iron pot hanger (tripod), a spit large enough for a medium-sized pig or a bird as large as a swan or bustard, and a small cask for spices and herbs (lock complexity 20). It will be up to the Cook to make sure that he his rounds of stale bread on hand to use as trenchers to eat off of, for this kit has no dishes in it. This kit can be carried easily behind the saddle of any riding horse, but without much room for anything else, or stowed with room to spare on any packhorse.

If the kit is being purchased for a character who is a Huntsman, Woodsman, or Guide, it may be purchased without the tripod and hook and spit, as the character may make these in the field from local green woods. This will reduce the cost of the kit by £0. 1s. 0d. and the weight of the kit by 8lb’s.

27) The Courtier’s Cosmetics kit will contain a small (5 x 7in.) common metal mirror, a variety of brushes from thick, wide soft ones for soft applications of finishing powders to provide a final touch of color like bronzing or blushing and also for sealing the finished application, smaller soft brushes for blending, as well as a number of harder denser brushes for applying colors and highlights and shadows, as well as very fine stiff brushes for applying liners and details, numbering about 8 in all, as well as sufficient cosmetics to complement and even emulate each of the humanoid races in each of the complexions from as pale and fair as a Nordic Viking to Mediterranean olive, golden as an Asian, brown as a desert-dweller, or even as dark as a Nubian, and in each of the color ranges (sallow, robust, and medium).

That is a total of 5 colors and three tones of each, or 15 pots of tinted or colored cosmetics containing enough to cover 100 (raw) STA point’s-worth of recipients. This does not include the colors for detailing eyes and lashes or highly colored face paints in the seven colors of the rainbow for adding fanciful motifs for holidays and special occasions (hearts, flowers, twining vines and leaves, heraldic animals and devices, etc.) and a small pot of spirit gum for applying jewels or other small ornaments to the face. The pots of cosmetics will certainly be the majority of the contents of the kit, but there will be heavier foundation bases to smooth over rough and damaged skin.

Cosmetic treatments will be measured in points of (raw) STA, but broken down according to the body areas to which they are applied,

For example, an average human with a STA of 20 will require 10 point-worth of cosmetics for the head, as it is a 1/2-portion BP area (20 ÷ 2 = 10), BUT, since only the face is really involved, that can be considered 5 points, really. The Neck would require the full 10 points-worth, as will the Forearms, the Upper Arms and the Lower Legs (as needed).

Hands and feet are rather problematic, as cosmetics will not stay on palms and soles of feet, which would have to stay hidden or somehow dyed to the appropriate shade.

These pots of colored creams must be used within a year or the fats used to make them will begin to go rancid, especially if they are not protected from heat above the high 70’s and the light of the sun, both of which will cause them to break down prematurely – one full day of light and heat will destroy them completely. Those things not used up with the year’s time will need to be discarded as they will begin to separate back out into their components and smell quite strongly.

IF the character is an Alchemist, he will be able to save 1s. 5d. on the cost of the kit by making it himself.

IF the character is an Herbal AND Forager, he will be able to save 1s. in cost of materials, but will still have to pay 1s. for those materials such as gum Arabic, bitumen, frankincense, and the like, which must be imported.

IF the character has both the Alchemist trade and the Herbal trade with the Forager skill, he will be able to reduce the cost for the kit to 1s. by procuring the materials and making them himself.

Taking the time for foraging and concocting one’s own supplies may be cost effective, especially for those on hiatus between adventures.

28) Masquer’s Props & Cosmetics contains everything noted as being in the Cosmetics kit, with the addition of the materials for augmenting the subject’s physical person or presence by up to 100 points of STA (changes in Build to be accounted for by (modified) points of STA, or diminishing the subject by the same amount, in accordance with the restrictions and description of the Masquer skill (weight and change in height will all be counted as points of “STA” at the rate quoted in the skill description). Obviously, not all 100 points will be expended on one recipient. Use of cosmetics will be handled in the manner described for the cosmetics kit and the Cosmetics skill.

29) The Craftsman’s tool kit for the armorer/weaponsmith includes an anvil, a great bickiron (anvil with long horns for riveting tubes or turning over-long pieces of metal), a small bickiron, a pipe stake, a crest stake for beating up helm crests, a visor stake for visors, a helm stake, a cuirass stake, a great hammer also called a plating hammer, a plain hammer, a crest hammer, a small hammer, a riveting hammer, an embossing hammer, a set of chisels and punches for repoussé work, one pair each of great pincers and tongs, one pair each of small pincers and tongs, a nail-tool for closing rivets, a burin for incising decorative designs, a pair of shears, a cutting iron (cold chisel), a complete set of cast iron doubles, a set of bellows for the forge, a hearthstake (poker), a set of files, an iron-bound water trough or barrel for tempering, three grinding wheels, one each for smoothing, finishing, and a wooden wheel for buffing, a grinding wheel for sharpening and a set of handheld whetstones, as well as a marking iron or punch for fixing the proof marks and trademark.

The stakes listed above are small, specialized bench-sitting anvils for making particular parts of the harness of fieldplate. The doubles are cast iron forms that serve as patterns to be followed in making each of the plate pieces. The player will note the inclusion of tools for engraving and repoussé (bas-relief sculpting), these tools will accommodate an Artisan of specialty in ornate metalwork.

The small Carpenter’s kit includes a pair of axes, a small adze, a square, and a spokehave. These will really be all the character will need to exercise the carpenter’s craft on any project with a DV up to 19.

The large Carpenter’s kit includes a hand saw, an auger (drill), a gouge, a measuring rod (16ft. 6in.), a square, a large and small plane, a large and a small adze, a rasp, a compass, a plumb bob, a level, a kick-powered lathe, a small iron wedge, and a set of carving knives and chisels in addition to the pair of axes, and spokehave. These tools will make the character’s job easier, and will also accommodate all the specialties of the carpenter’s trade (cabinetry, furniture-making, marquetry), as well as the wood-carver’s Artisan specialty. These tools can all be carried in a large chest, but the kick-lathe will have to be disassembled to fit, and will take time to set up again when needed.

The mason/builder’s kit includes a stone saw, a sharpening rasp for the saw, a set of chisels, a whetstone for sharpening them, a heavy hammer, a light hammer, a mallet, a pickaxe, a spade, a shovel, a trowel, a hod, a wheelbarrow, and a handbarrow. All of this will fit nicely into the wheelbarrow that comes with the kit.

The smith’s kit contains 3 heavy hammers, 2 light hammers, a small anvil, 2 brass 2-pulley blocks, 4 fullers, 1 pair of metal shears, a mail-iron, a kick-powered grinding wheel for sharpening blades or tools, an iron drawing plate for making wire, a set of Master’s lock picks, 2 files, a ladle, a mold for ingots, a set of large bellows for the forge, a hearthstake (poker), and a scuttle for forge fuel. The anvil will have to be mounted on a tree stump or large section of dense wood such as oak in order to be used.

This kit will require a cart on the order of a timbrel to carry all together, or a pair of large chests to carry without the anvil.

The silver/goldsmith’s and jeweler’s kits include a small (10lb.) bench-top anvil, a set of punches and chisels for repoussé, a burin for engraving decorative surface motifs, a pair of fire tongs, a soldering lamp, a lead stamping pad, a spatula, a set of small hammers, two iron drawing plates for making wire, a steel-shod (iron) drawing plate for making filigree wire, four small crucibles for metal casting, a small set of molds of common decorative motifs, a set of bronze stamps for impressing common decorative motifs, a Master’s set of lock picks, 2 files, a pair of bellows, and a scuttle for fuel.

The player will note the inclusion of tools for engraving and repoussé (bas-relief sculpting), these tools will accommodate an Artisan of specialty in ornate metalwork, especially small and delicate work such as jewelry making, typical of the silver/goldsmith’s art.

30) The Draughtbeast’s kit consists of a padded draught collar, full harness, a halter, and blinders, as well as a set of horse shoes and a whip.

31) The Horseman’s kit consists of bit, bridle and reins, saddle blanket, saddle (complete with the necessary harness), a pair of common spurs, 1 set of common horseshoes, a sumpter cloth for cool or bad weather or to keep the sun or road dust off, a cuerbully portmanteau for carrying personal effects behind the saddle, and sponge and strigil for grooming, a hobble-chain and a padlock (DV 10).

32) The Huntsman’s kit consists of a leather backpack/rucksack, one each of summer-weight and winter-weight blankets, a pair of large boda bags for water, a small boda bag for wine, mead, beer, ale, etc. 100ft. of 1/2in. rope, 50ft. of 1in. rope, a leather wallet or shoulder-bag, a pair of common canvas tarps, a tinderbox, a half-dozen torches of knotty pine, and a common signal or huntsman’s horn.

For £0. 0s. 11d. and 6 lb’s more in cost and weight, the character can have the tick and cushion shells to go with the blankets, the whole bedroll set.

For an additional £0. 0s. 3d. 1hp. and one (1) more pound in weight, the player can swap his character’s torches for an oil lamp and a 1-pint flask of oil, or for £0. 2s. 5d. 1hp. the swap the torches for a lantern and four good candles. If the player takes the candle-lanthorn option, the character can have a nice glass-paned lantern for £0. 0s. 9d. 3fg. more.

For £0. 2s. 7d. 1fg. more, the player may also change one of the canvas tarps for leather, or change both to leather for £0. 5s. 2d.

33) The Knave’s tool kit contains two sets of lock picks, one large and one small, a grappling hook, a trap tool kit, a 30ft. spool of 1/16th in. drawn steel wire, a 50ft spool of heavy twine, a little stoppered terracotta flask of fine oil with a small bundle of common feathers for oiling neglected hinges, latches, and locks, and 4 hardwood wedges. This kit specifically the lock picks and the trap tools, will only be legitimately available for Artificer-skilled Craftsmen of the Smith specialty, the balance of the materials in it can be purchased by anyone in nearly any common marketplace. otherwise, the character will have to go through the local thieves’ guild or fraternity, or Rogue networks if there is no guild, to obtain his tools. The player will need to work out the details of how he obtained his kit with the GM prior to play, as a part of his character’s background.

34) Lock picks consist of a number of small hooks, probes and other odd and obscure tools of various sizes to enable the character to open locks without the requisite key or keys.

The player and GM will note that these tools are rated by LoA. This defines the maximum lock complexity ratings or base DV on which a given set of picks can be used, and also defines the maximum SL that can be exercised with those picks (regardless of whether the character has a higher SL).

The character will have an additional DV penalty to pick any lock that has a complexity rating (base DV) higher than the SL-rating (LoA) of his set of picks.

The small set of picks are designed for use on very small locks such as might be constructed by a jeweler (as small as a lady’s locket), while the large set of picks are created for use with locks of the more usual size (the size of a man’s hand, or thereabouts).

LoA SL/DV Limit
Journeyman up to 9
Warden 10 to 19
Artisan 20 to 29
Master 30 to 39
WorksMaster 40 and up

Lock picks, as such, will only be available to smiths who do a regular business in making locks and/or commonly consort with low Rogues and Knaves or who are members of those trades, in addition, or through the local knaves’ or rogues’ guild or organization or various street networks if a guild does not exist. The player will have to work out the details of the means by which his character obtained these with the GM.

The relative SL/DV-rating of the sets of lock picks by LoA can be seen on the table.

35) The Packbeast’s kit contains a halter, a whip, a horse blanket, a pair of wicker panniers or dorsers (same price, player’s choice), with a surcingle and a set of two canvas flages (effectively weather-proof covers) to lace up over them, and old saddle for carrying bales, etc., 25ft of 1/2in. rope to bundle and lash down larger loads, a set of common horseshoes, a trapper for cool or bad weather or to keep the sun or road dust off, and sponge and strigil for grooming, a hobble-chain and a padlock (DV 10).

For an additional £0. 2s. 0d. and 4 lb’s in weight, the player can equip his character with panniers or dorsers that are reinforced with iron straps for additional strength. For an additional £0. 0s. 6d., the player can give his character cuerbully (same as the armor) portmanteaus, commonly used to carry clothing and personal effects, instead of the wicker freight-baskets. The player can save his character £0. 0s. 2d. on the cost of additional kits, if he should be equipping more than one pack beast, by omitting the whip from those additional kits, and save £0. 0s. 2d. 1hp. on additional kits if he wishes to omit the additional lengths of rope.

36) The Ritual/Rite Kit entry is a catch-all designed for the use of all characters who are members of trades that practice Low Magick. It is assumed that the kit each character purchases will be suitable for his trade and style of magick and no other. The kit is made up of a collection of candlesticks and candle stands, oil lamps, braziers, censors, bells, chimes, and/or gongs, cups or chalices, perhaps a small mirror, offertory bowls, platters, and plate on which the objects of the ritual are placed (especially those used for Sympathy and Resonance), all of various common metals. These objects are the common factor in the casting of Low Magick and the Mystics’ rites. They are specially tuned to the vibration or aura of the owner. These kits are VERY special to each magicker, as described in the players’ and GMs’ Grimoires, and every item making up such a kit must be in harmony with his personality, his tastes, his sense of style, and his spiritual vibration, in addition to being protected from the touch and especially use by others.

A magicker’s ritual/rite kit must be purchased by the character himself, or every item in it hand-picked by him in person, at the least, unlike the consumable substances called “ritual/rite supplies” (described in note #14 under “Notes on Adventure Gear”) that are used in conjunction with this kit to cast Low Magick.

The higher the POT of the magick drawn for the casting of a ritual, the greater the number of such special props required in the casting, and the greater their variety.

Like the materials used up in the castings (consumables), the props and vessels of a ritual/rite kit that are used with them to create Low Magick are also rated in point’s-worth of POT.

LoA POT Limit
Journeyman up to 9
Warden up to 19
Artisan up to 29
Master up to 39
WorksMaster up to 50

The character may not cast any magick resulting in a dweomer whose POT is greater than the POT-rating of his ritual/rite kit, or the POT-rating of the consumables he has for the casting, whichever is less. The POT-ratings for each of the kits, the maximum POT of magick that may be cast with a given kit, are noted on the table that follows.

Items to be used in ritual/rite kits may only be purchased in marketplaces or from merchants or merchants’ agents of towns or cities no smaller than secondary ports, chief shire towns, or at major, internationally important faires (GM’s discretion).

The “1 point of POT” entry is provided to enable the player to add to the POT-rating of his kit and the POT of magicks it will allow him to cast one point at a time. Once character generation is complete and the character has been brought into play, the larger kits listed under “Character Kits” will not be available. To save the PC any potential trouble, the character should buy an extra point’s-worth to increase the range of power (POT) the character can tap through the use of his ritual kit any time he has access to a market of sufficient size and sophistication to shop (as above) and a few extra coins burning a hole in his purse, especially as his SL’s rise and therefore also his chances of success in casting Low Magick at high levels of POT rise to the point where he is comfortable attempting magicks of greater POT.

The player and GM will please note that once play has commenced and the character is out shopping to upgrade the POT-rating of his ritual kit, the prices for the various LoA kits, which have been discounted by 10%, will not be available. Only those characters who are members of the local Merchants’ Guild will be able to secure a discount, and then only when purchasing in volume, as discussed in the trade description, and the character will have to employ his Presence skill for Haggling successfully to gain any discount.

37) The Scrivener’s kit consists of a tined wheel on a wooden handle to measure and prick the writing surface, a lead stylus for scribing guidelines on the surface, a common knife and a pumice stone to scrape off and smooth imperfections in parchment and erase minor mistakes, a small supply of crayons or chalk sticks to soften vellum, a sand pouch for blotting wet ink, common black ink, an inkhorn, 1 quire each of paper and parchment, assorted goose quills, a diptych of fine mazerwood or ivory with a stylus for taking notes and dictation.

The ink is made of stewed hawthorn bark/sap, and additional supplies will only be widely available in the autumn when the sap falls. It is stored ready for use in a 1 pint terracotta or cuerbully flask with a leather stopper. The inkhorn is just that, a cow’s horn finished smooth on the inside to serve as a vessel for holding roughly 1 cup of ink. The point of the horn fits down into a hole cut into the copy board for that purpose, for the scribe’s convenience, and the horn will weight roughly 0.5 lb’s when full.

The diptych is a folder-like implement made up of two rectangular panels of wood or ivory hinged together down their longest side, closing like a book. Inside, both panels are hollowed out and the recesses filled with beeswax. The scribes notes, thoughts, and dictations are scribed into the beeswax with a stylus – a pen-like stick with a sharpened point. When the scribe has transposed his notes to more permanent surface (paper, parchment, etc.) or no longer needs them, he opens the diptych out flat and warms it until the wax melts and smoothes over again. Beeswax has a VERY low melting point, so the scribe will have to be careful how and where he leaves it in hot weather.

38) The Trap Tools consist of a kit containing a number of small hooks, probes, clippers, small shears, spare levers and gears, and other odd and obscure tools of various sizes to enable the character to disarm, repair and reset each of the three types of traps (pit, snare, and deadfall). The small set is designed for use on those traps as small as a jeweler might make, while the large tools are for use with the more common run of traps, as large a device as an Architect might create.

The player and GM will note that these tools are rated by LoA. This defines the maximum trap complexity ratings or base DV on which a given set of tools can be used, and also defines the maximum SL that can be exercised with those tools (regardless of whether the character has a higher SL).

The character will have an additional DV penalty to disarm, repair, or rest any lock that has a complexity rating (base DV) higher than the SL-rating (LoA) of his set of tools.

Lock picks, as such, will only be available to smiths who do a regular business in making locks and/or commonly consort with low Rogues and Knaves or who are members of those trades, in addition, or through the local knaves’ or rogues’ guild or organization or various street networks if a guild does not exist. The player will have to work out the details of the means by which his character obtained these with the GM.

The SL/DV-rating of the sets of lock picks by LoA can be seen on the following table.

LoA SL/DV Limit
Journeyman up to 9
Warden 10 to 19
Artisan 20 to 29
Master 30 to 39
WorksMaster 40 and up

39) The Weapon & Armor Maintenance kit includes a pumice stone for spot rust removal, a barrel for rocking mail (refurbishing from bouts of dampness), a sack of bran for buffing, felted blankets sufficient for packing and storing one full suit of fieldplate or other armor, oils and wax to dress leather armors, replacement leather straps, thongs, rivets, and buckles, a set of handheld grinding stones for general maintenance, a small grinding wheel for addressing edges and points that are in bad shape, and a pint flask of fine oil for the stones.

Armor is very susceptible to the damp, not just the wet, and mail must be rocked if possible as soon as rust appears. Rokking is the process of taking a garment of mail and dumping it in a barrel, sometimes one studded with nails whose shafts project into the barrel for the mail to slide down over, filling the barrel with brine and vinegar and shovel-full of sand and then rolling it about. The sand, the nails and rolling about scours the mail bright and clean, after which it can be oiled.


Manufacturing Materials,

Building Materials &

Embellishment   Alkanet root (dye stuffs, common red)1£0. 1s. 0d. Amomum, “Hot grains of Paradise”1£0. 0s. 3d. 1hp. Brass1£0. 0s. 2d. 3fg ,   Closure, iron ring w/latch & catch £0. 0s. 3d. Column, marble, per ft. of height £0. 0s. 6d. Copper1£0. 0s. 2d. Copperas (sulphate of iron, to make ink)1£0. 0s. 1d. 1hp. Frankincense1£0. 1s. 8d. Glass, “white”, for windows, per sq. ft. £0. 0s. 4d. Hinge, common ring-type w/ jamb hook 2d. 1hp. Hinge, iron 4d. Hokyr (red pigment)1£0. 0s. 1d. Iron1£0. 0s. 1d. Lead2£0. 0s. 0d. 1fg. Mercury1£0. 0s. 9d. 1fg. Nails6-penny (25) £0. 0s. 1d.  Board – (100)1£0. 0s. 1d. 3fg.  “Tingle” or Shingle (100) £0. 0s. 1d. 1hp.  Window, tin-headed (100) £0. 0s. 3d.  Roofing (250) £0. 0s. 3d.  “Great” (100) £0. 1s. 0d.  Tin-headed (100) £0. 1s. 0d. Ochre (brownish-yellow artists’ pigment)1£0. 0s. 2d. Orpiment (sulphide of arsenic)1£0. 0s. 1d.40Painting, fresco mural, per sq. yard £0. 4s. 4d. Pewter1£0. 0s. 3d. Plaster of Paris, bushelwhite £0. 1s. 3d.  black £0. 1s. 0d. Pole, alder (construction scaffolding), ea. £0. 0s. 2d. 1hp. Rammer, Tamper (for laying pavers) £0. 0s. 1d. Sanders, red dye stuffs (sandalwood)1£0. 3s. 4d. Shingles, oak roofing (100) £0. 1s. 4d. to

£0. 3s. 0d. Slates, roofing (100)small £0. 0s. 1d. 1hp.  large £0. 0s. 5d. 1hp. Slates, largest, flooring (10) £0. 0s. 1d. 1fg. Spikenard root (for use in perfume, incense, sedative, herbal medicine)


£0. 0s. 3d. Stained Glass, per sq.ft. £0. 1s. 0d. Steel, mild, for tools1£0. 0s. 4d. Steel, for weapons1£0. 0d. 7d. 1hp. Stone, BuildingAshlar, 1 ft. cube (5) £0. 0s. 1s.  Teynton quarry, cu. ft. £0. 0s. 2d.  Kentish Hard-, cu. ft. £0. 0s. 8d.41 window, ready cut £5. 0s. 0d. Tapestry Hooks, “crocket”-style (25) £0. 0s. 2d. Tar, gallon £0. 0s. 4d. Tiles (floor)Flemish, red (100) £0. 0s. 6d.  plain (100) £0. 0s. 8d.  pattern, domestic (100) £0. 1s. 0d. Tiles, fireplace (100) £0. 0s. 9d. Tiles (roof)plain, (100) £0. 0s. 4d.  barrel, “hollow” (100) £0. 1s. 8d.  crest, ridge (100) £0. 2s. 0d.  corner, gutter (100) £0. 0s. 9d. Timber“Great Oak”, plank £0. 1s. 0d. to

£0. 3s. 0d.  fir, beam 1ft. x 1.5ft. x 19.5ft. £0. 10s. 0d.42 laths, beech (100) £0. 0s. 2d.42 laths, oak heartwood (100) £0. 0s. 9d.  wainscot/estrich, 100 sq.ft. £0. 18s. 0d. to

£1. 6s. 0d.  standing dead wood up to £0. 1s. 0d. Tin1£0. 0s. 2d. Turves of grass (100) £0. 0s. 3d. Verdigris (copper oxide pigment)1£0. 0s. 9d. Wax, for seals(white)1£0. 0s. 8d.  colored1up to £0. 1s. 4d. Wick, cotton, for candles1£0. 1s. 0d. Woolcoarsest364£2. 10s. 0d.  best, finest364£9. 7s. 6d.

Tools, Assorted
43 Balance for weighing £0. 5s. 2d.
Chalkline, 12 “knots” (feet) £0. 0s. 3d.
Chisel 1 £0. 0s. 2d. 1hp.
Climbing Pick 6 £0. 0s. 8d.
Dogfish skin (used as sandpaper) £0. 0s. 9d.
Drafting table (“board of fir with trestles & other harness”)

£0. 6s. 8d. Fan, Winnowing – £0. 3s. 0d. Flail, Threshing – £0. 0s. 0d. 3fg. Fork, Dung -, iron £0. 0s. 4d. Fork, Hay/Corn -, iron £0. 0s. 2d. 3fg. Fork, Hay -, wood £0. 0s. 1d. 1hp. Funnel for filling casks £0. 0s. 2d. Gallon Measure,

to the standard of the realm

£0. 0s. 2d. 3fg. Grappling Hook3£0. 3s. 5d. 1fg.44Grinder, industrial £0. 18s. 0d. Grindstone (sharpening -, kickwheel) £0. 0s. 10d. Gouge (drill) £0. 0s. 10d. Hammer, “Great -”, masons hardhewer £0. 0s. 8d. Hammer, “Little -” £0. 0s. 4d. Hammer for shoeing horses & general smithy work

£0. 0s. 3d. Hoe £0. 0s. 3d. 1fg. Hurdle, portable 5ft. section of fencing £0. 0s. 6d. Mallet, common wood1£0. 0s. 1d. Mallet, “Great -”, iron £0. 0s. 10d. Mattock £0. 0s. 8d. 1hp. Mortar of copper & Pestle of iron, lg.

(tools of the mint)

£2. 0s. 0d. Mortar with iron Pestle, sm.

(tools of the mint)

£0. 1s. 0d.45Mortal & Pestle, industrial £0. 7s. 0d. Pick for digging £0. 0s. 9d. 3fg. Pickaxe £0. 1s. 0d. Plane, Carpenters’, “drawing -” £0. 0s. 5d. 1hp. Plane, Carpenters’, small £0. 0s. 1d. Rake, common wooden £0. 0s. 2d. Saw1-man3£0. 1s. 0d.  2-man15£0. 3s. 5d. 1fg. Shovel5£0. 0s. 4d. Sickle, “reap-hook” £0. 0s. 2d. 1hp. Spade £0. 0s. 3d. Square, carpenters’/masons’ £0. 0s. 8d. Whetstone, handheld £0. 0s. 1d.

Notes on Manufacturing Materials,

Building Materials & Embellishment

40) This rate assumes that the fee includes the materials supplied by the craftsman, which it is noted here, rather than in the Labor Services roster, following. Painting is cheaper than sculpture, even the painting of a master painter, so often monochromatic painting will be used to take the place of sculptural ornament, called “grisaille” when painted in black and shades of gray, “brunaille” when painted in shades of brown, or “verdaille” when painted in shades of green.

41) This is a complete set of stones, consisting of sill, jambs, mullions, arch, and tracery.

42) A lath is a thin strip of wood usually nailed in rows to framing supports as a substructure for plaster, shingles, slates, or tiles

Notes on Assorted Tools

43) The Balance is a stand with a beam hinged in the middle with a pan hanging from chains at each end used for weighing things. It will be accompanied by 88 lb’s-worth of bronze or copper weights milled to the standard of the realm (the example here was used in the Queen’s Wardrobe). Considering the weights it is designed to handle

44) The Grinder is made of iron & comes with an iron plate on which to work. It is used for grinding silver filings, geet & gum Arabic for (stained-) glass painting.

45) The Mortar & Pestle are made of bronze and of iron, respectively, and are used for grinding black lead glass (“geet”) and other (stained-) glass pigments used in (stained-) glass painting prior to firing.

46 Victuals, Comestibles Wt. Cost
Ale, per gal., common domestic 2 £0. 0s. 1d.
Ale, Pudding- (best “bock” style) 2 £0. 0s. 4d.
Almonds 1 £0. 0s. 1d. 1hp. to

£0. 0s. 2d. 1hp. Anise (licorice flavor)1£0. 0s. 4d. Apple Cider, per gal.2£0. 0s. 0d. 1fg. “Arager in Gobbets”

(candied orange/peel)


£0. 1s. 2d. Bacon, whole £0. 1s. 10d. Bay leaves1oz£0. 0s. 1d. 1fg. Beans, per bushel £0. 3s. 0d. Beer, per gal., common domestic2£0. 0s. 0d. 1hp. Beer, best quality, per gal.2£0. 0s. 0d. 3fg.47Breadgreat(var.)£0. 0s. 1d.  middle(var.)£0. 0s. 0d. 1hp.  small(var.)£0. 0s. 0d. 1fg. Butter1£0. 0s. 1d. 1hp. “Cannel” or Cinnamon1oz£0. 0s. 1d. Capon, curlew, goose, hen or purcel £0. 0s. 6d. Cardamom1oz£0. 0s. 3d. 1fg. Cheese, domesticgreat6£0. 0s. 3d.  middle4£0. 0s. 2d.  small2£0. 0s. 1d. Cloves1oz£0. 0s. 6d. to

£0. 2s. 0d. Coriander1oz£0. 0s. 0d. 1fg. Cream, gallon £0. 0s. 3d. Cubeb, “tailed pepper”, “Java pepper”1oz£0. 0s. 2d. 1fg. Cumin1oz£0. 0s. 0d. 1hp. Dates1£0. 0s. 1d. 3fg. Eel, large, ea. £0. 0s. 2d. Eels, small (5) £0. 0s. 1d. Eggs (6)0.75£0. 0s. 2d. 1fg. Fennel1oz£0. 0s. 0d. 1fg. Fennel, Grains of – (fennel seed)1oz£0. 0s. 0d. 1fg. Figs1£0. 0s. 2d. Galingale1oz£0. 0s. 1d. 1hp. to

£0. 0s. 6d. 1hp. Ginger, whole root1£0. 2s. 8d. Ginger, “Zinzibari”, candied, per pot £1. 14s. 0d. Ginger, powdered1£0. 1s. 4d. Gingerbread1£0. 1s. 10d. to

£0. 3s. 0d. Hare, large (dressed for the pot) £0. 1s. 0d. Herring, fresh (6)6£0. 0s. 1d. 1fg. Herring, pickled (25)25£0. 0s. 1d. 1hp. Herring, red (smoked, 45)45£0. 0s. 0d. 1hp. Honey1 oz.£0. 0s. 3d. Lampern (lamprey), small (10) £0. 0s. 1d. Lamprey £0. 0s. 7d. Lampreda (lamprey), large £0. 4s. 4d. to

£0. 6s. 6d Larks, ea. £0. 0s. 0d. 1fg. Licorice root1£0. 0d. 3d. Mace (dried nutmeg shell)1 oz.£0. 0s. 4d. 1hp. Mackerell, ea. £0. 0s. 1d. Mead (honey wine), per gal.1.75£0. 0s. 2d. 1hp. Meatoxen1£0. 0s. 0d. 1fg.  ox, whole carcass £0. 11s. 0d.  beef1£0. 0s. 1d.  beef, whole carcass £0. 5s. 0d.  pork1£0. 0s. 0d. 1hp.  pork, ham (1, whole) £0. 1s. 4d.  pork, 1/2 carcass £0. 1s. 8d.  mutton1£0. 0s. 0d. 1fg.  mutton, whole carcass £0. 1s. 0d.  sheep, whole carcass £0. 0s. 11d. Milk, per gal.2.25£0. 0s. 0d. 1hp. Mussels, bushel £0. 0s. 5d. Nutmeg1oz£0. 0s. 1d. 1hp.48Oats, bushel32£0. 0s. 4d. Oil, 1 gal. jargeneral cooking-10£0. 0s. 3d.  olive10£0. 0s. 6d. Oysters (25) £0. 0s. 1d. Partridge £0. 0s. 4d. Pears (12) £0. 0s. 1d. Pepper, 1 oz.1oz.£0. 0s. 4d. Pike (3ft.) £0. 6s. 8d. Pomegranites, ea. £0. 1s. Raisins1£0. 0s. 2d. Rice (imported from Spain)1£0. 0s. 1d. 1hp.46Road Fare, per 3 pts STA, per day0.25£0. 0s. 0d. 1hp. Saffron (crocus threads)1oz£0. 1s. 2d. Salmon, fresh £0. 0s. 9d. to

£0. 6s. 9d. Salmon (avg.)1£0. 0s. 1d. 1fg. Salmon, trimmed/whole (avg.)8£0. 0s. 9d. Salt

Coarse or “Great -”, evaporated

(gray, black, or even green)7.75£0. 0s. 1d.  “Small -” boiled (white)2.75£0. 0s. 1d. Squab (pigeon), ea. £0. 0s. 0d. 1fg. Stockfish (dried whitefish) £0. 0s. 1d. 1fg.49Sugar, “rock sugar”1 oz.£0. 0s. 2d. Sugar, imported “Morroccan”1 oz.£0. 0s. 0d. 3fg. Sweetmeats1£0. 0d. 6d. Vinegar, per gal.2£0. 0s. 2d. Wafer Pastries1£0. 0s. 3d. Wheat, bushel60£0. 0s. 6d. 1hp. Wine, per gal., common domestic1.75£0. 0s. 4d. Wine, per gal., best domestic1.75£0. 0s. 8d. Wine, per gal., common import1.75£0. 0s. 10d. Wine, sweet or spiced import1.75£0. 1s. 4d. Wine, per gal., best import1.75£0. 2s. 0d.

Notes on Victuals, Comestibles

46) Road Fare commonly consists of a tough journey bread with a good shelf life, some sort of jerked or smoked or salted meat and/or fish, hard rind cheeses, and assorted dried winter fruits.

As far as freshly butchered livestock, a chicken or rabbit as the main course of a meal will sate two average appetites, or the equivalent of 2/3rd’s of a day’s meat for one average adult, a large herring two, a capon four, a large hare six (or an entire day’s meat for one character with 16 – 18 STA), a fat goose or a whole average salmon eight (2/3rd’s of a day’s meat for a single character with STA 22 – 24). The average person is assumed here to be an adult with STA of 20 and a Medium Build. Those with more slight Builds will need less food and those who are more robust will need more, so the STA score used to determine their food needs MUST be modified for Build before purchasing.

A half pound of meat will fill the average belly. This can be read as “protein” instead, as the combination of a legume like peas or beans and rice make a whole protein. Of course, these fresh meats will spoil within a day if not cooked, and within another day or two after being cooked. Even though the Road Fare is a bit more expensive than fresh meat, it will last about 3-4 months before it will begin to go bad around the edges, salted meat double that or 6-8 months.

The character will be expected to balance out his meals with bread, vegetables, drink, and so on to avoid malnutrition, scurvy, etc. When buying wheels of cheese and all other similar foods as components of provisions (vegetables, bread, figs, etc.), the player should allot roughly 4 oz. (0.25 pound) of cheese as a portion to last each day for each (average, 20 STA) diner. Bread was the staff of life, indeed, and the populace depended on it for their daily caloric intake, roughly one (1) loaf of c. 1lb. in weight per person per day. Stale rounds of bread were commonly used as plates (trenchers) for serving the meal, soaking up the juices or broth of the food and softening so that by the end of the meal they could be eaten, as well.

The player should note that to eat beef or pork is a sign of status, for few can afford to keep and eat their animals after slaughtering them. Only the animals that cannot be fed through the winter are generally slaughtered, and much of the proceeds are sold to help make ends meet over the course of the winter. Meat comprised only roughly 38% of the total provision of energy in the diet for the students in a Scots college as late as the 18th century that was the subject of a later study. Sheep are too valuable for their wool, oxen to pull the plows, and/or cattle for their milk to slay them for their flesh until they outlive their usefulness, and by that time their meat will have become tough and stringy. A slightly cheaper source of energy than beef, mutton was still 5 x the cost of oatmeal.

Mutton, the meat of an old sheep, will not be well thought of.

No one but the very wealthy ate meat three times a day, far different from the practice in the modern world. Fish was eaten roughly every other day, and the cheapest of that was stockfish, dried and so hard it had to be soaked and beaten to soften it, which generally turned it into a paste that was used in a sauce or broth.

IF the PC’s intend to take livestock along for meat on the hoof to slaughter and eat as they go, the GM will have all the pertinent information on the weights of the beasts and the average yields in lean meat, bone, etc. for the resulting carcasses which can be used to determine how many people a carcass will feed, and for how many days.

There is no such thing as refrigeration in the period of the game, although the concept that chilling will help perishables retain their freshness was only slowly beginning to be generally recognized towards the end of the period of the game. In a perpetually medieval game world the value of refrigeration might be well-known, however, and much use made of root cellars for their constant cool (55-65°), but ice for keeping things cool will be as big a business as it was in the 19th century (GM’s discretion), though more for the “middle class” commons and the upwardly socially mobile – not exactly cheap. Regardless of the use of refrigeration, beer, wine, and all other beverages will most likely be consumed at room temperature by custom and habit, nonetheless.

Beer and ale will be the most common drink, available in every burgh and hamlet, brewed weekly because of the fact that it spoils within four or five days after brewing. The average commoner’s family (c. 5 persons) will drink about a gallon of ale a day. Wine will keep better and much more easily, but is not yet stored in glass bottles as that would be far too expensive. Wine is kept in its original wooden tuns or barrels, sealed with pitch, and generally doesn’t keep well for more than a year.

Of course, these details may be different in the GM’s own gameworld. The glass industry might easily have crept forward in development while the feudal regime remained strong, allowing wine to be bottled and corked for long-term storage, thus bringing the recognition of vintages into play.

Some vintages of wine had been observed as being better in quality among the Romans who had better means of storage, but that was not true in the medieval era. This small detail could make things more interesting – another use for the Connoisseur skill.

47) the penny, ha-penny and farthing loaves of bread will be the standard prices available, even when the price of wheat drops in times of plenty or skyrockets in time of famine. What will fluctuate with the availability of the grains will always be the weight (size) of the loaf that will be received for the price. The size of the loaves will be fixed yearly by statute once the prevailing price of grain has been assessed by the Crown following the harvest, called the Assize of Bread and Beer, according to the quality of the bread.

Bread, the Staff and staple of Life, comes in many different grades, depending on the quality and type of grain used to make it.

Of bread made of wheat we have sundry sorts daily brought to the table, whereof the first and most excellent is the manchet, which we commonly call white bread, in Latin primarius panis, whereof Budeus also speaketh, in his first book De asse; and our good workmen deliver commonly such proportion that of the flour of one bushel with another they make forty cast of manchet, of which every loaf weigheth eight ounces into the oven, and six ounces out, as I have been informed. The second is the cheat or wheaten bread, so named because the colour thereof resembleth the grey or yellowish wheat, being clean and well dressed, and out of this is the coarsest of the bran (usually called gurgeons or pollard) taken. The raveled is a kind of cheat bread also, but it retaineth more of the gross, and less of the pure substance of the wheat; and this, being more slightly wrought up, is used in the halls of the nobility and gentry only, whereas the other either is or should be baked in cities and good towns of an appointed size (according to such price as the corn doth bear), and by a statute provided by King John in that behalf. The ravelled cheat therefore is generally so made that out of one bushel of meal, after two and twenty pounds of bran be sifted and taken from it (whereunto they add the gurgeons that rise from the manchet), they make thirty cast, every loaf weighing eighteen ounces into the oven, and sixteen ounces out; and, beside this, they so handle the matter that to every bushel of meal they add only two and twenty, or three and twenty, pound of water, washing also (in some houses) their corn before it go to the mill, whereby their manchet bread is more excellent in colour, and pleasing to the eye, than otherwise it would be. The next sort is named brown bread, of the colour of which we have two sorts one baked up as it cometh from the mill, so that neither the bran nor the flour are any whit diminished; this, Celsus called autopirus panis, lib. 2, and putteth it in the second place of nourishment. The other hath little or no flour left therein at all, howbeit he calleth it Panem Cibarium, and it is not only the worst and weakest of all the other sorts, but also appointed in old time for servants, slaves, and the inferior kind of people to feed upon. Hereunto likewise, because it is dry and brickle in the working (for it will hardly be made up handsomely into loaves), some add a portion of rye meal in our time, whereby the rough dryness or dry roughness thereof is somewhat qualified, and then it is named miscelin, that is, bread made of mingled corn, albeit that divers do sow or mingle wheat and rye of set purpose at the mill, or before it come there, and sell the same at the markets under the aforesaid name.

Original spelling:

Of bread made of wheat we haue sundrie sorts, dailie brought to the table, whereof the first and most excellent is the mainchet, which we commonlie call white bread, in Latine Primarius panis, wherof Budeus also speaketh, in his first booke De asse, and our good primarim paworkemen deliuer commonlie such proportion, that of the flower of one bushell with another they make fortie cast of manchet, of which euerie lofe weigheth eight ounces into the ouen and six ounces out, as I haue bene informed. The second is the cheat or wheaton bread, cheat bread, so named bicause the colour therof resembleth the graie or yellowish wheat, being cleane and well dressed, and out of this is the coursest of the bran (vsuallie called gurgeons or pollard) taken. The raueled is a kind of cheat bread also, but it reteineth more of the grosse, and lesse of the pure substance of the wheat: and this being more sleightlie wrought vp, is vsed in the halles of the nobilitie, and gentrie onelie, whereas the other either is or should be baked in cities & good townes of an appointed size (according to such price as the corne dooth beare) and by a statute prouided by king Iohn in that behalfe. The raueled cheat therfore is generallie so made that out of one bushell of meale, after two and twentie pounds of bran be sifted and taken from it (vvherevnto they ad the gurgeons that rise from the manchet) they make thirtie cast, euerie lofe weighing eighteene ounces into the ouen and sixteene ounces out: and beside this they so handle the matter that to euerie bushell of meale they ad onelie two and twentie or three and twentie pound of water, washing also in some houses Browne bread, there corne before it go to the mill, whereby their manchet bread is more excellent in colour and pleasing to the eie, than otherwise it would be. The next sort is named browne bread of the colour, of which we haue two sorts, one baked vp as it cometh from the mill, so that neither the bran nor the floure are anie whit diminished, this Celsus called Autopirus panis, lib. 2. and putteth it in the second place of nourishment. The other hath little or no floure left therein at all, howbeit he calleth it Panem Cibarium, and it is not onlie the woorst and weakest of all the other sorts, but also appointed in old time for seruants, slaues, and the inferiour kind of people to feed vpon. Ilerevnto likewise, bicause it is drie and brickie in the working (for it will hardlie be made vp handsomelie into loaues) some adde a portion of rie meale in our time, whereby the rough drinesse or drie roughnes therof is somwhat qualified, & then it is named miscelin, that is, bread made of mingled corne albeit that diuerse doo sow or mingle wheat & rie of set purpose at the mill, or before it come there, and sell the same at the markets vnder the aforesaid name.

William Harrison’s Description of England from Holinshed’s Chronicles

The finest white bread has the texture of modern croissant and is called wastel. Simnel bread (artocopi, or Lords Bread) also symnell (boiled and clean) is really just a denser, more moist biscuit – or bagel, as it is boiled – made from the same flour for a higher price, followed by cocket bread, mancherin or manchet (or Noble Bread) and pandemayne (or Daily Bread).

Simnel, wastel and first cocket seem to have differed in the moistness of the loaf rather than the fineness or quality of the flour, first cocket using the same grain and bolting (grinding) as wastel. A loaf of Simnel weighs 0.99 of the weight of a wastel loaf, hardly a discernable difference, and the pan-de-mayne (pain-demeine or payne demayne) is slightly more expensive at 0.98 of the weight of a loaf of wastel. Manchet seems to have been a similar grade to first cocket.

The consumers watch every ounce in the weighing of their bread like hawks.

Pretzels are also available, large and soft, rather than the small, crisp modern sort that come in a cellophane bag, an invention of a monk who twisted the dough into the shape of a monk’s arms properly crossed in prayer to help instruct the novices.

Then there are the brown breads: rye, bran, and maslin or mixtilio (mixed wheat/rye flour), and the rough brown loaves of bis or trete. The poorest sort of bread is called horse bread, made from peas, beans, oats, or similar poor serf’s feed, also used to feed horses. The breads are all sold at a standard price, only the size of the loaf is allowed to vary, its proper weight set by statute every year according to the harvest and the prevailing price of grain.

The average price of wheat for the period chosen for the game comes to 6d./bushel. According to the Assize, the PC’s should receive a 1lb. 6 oz. loaf of wastel for their farthing. The ha’-penny wastel loaf would thus be 2lb’s 12oz., and the penny loaf 5lb’s 8oz.

The lowest price for wheat that could be found for the period in question was 3d./bushel. At half the price, this must have been a time of great harvests and plenty. According to the Assize, the PC’s should receive a 3lb 8oz. loaf of wastel for their farthing. The ha’-penny wastel loaf would thus be 7lb’s, and the penny loaf 14lb’s (!!!).

The highest price for wheat that could be found for the period was 2s. 6d./bushel at the height of the Great Famine (1315-1317). The yields were so poor that the people were forced to eat their seed grain, and even each other after that, in some cases. According to the Assize, the PC’s should receive a 0.25lb “loaf” of wastel for their farthing – essentially little more than a biscuit or dinner roll. The ha’-penny wastel loaf would thus be 0.5lb, and the penny loaf 1lb.

The weights of the loaves of the other types of breads are all relative to the base line provided by the farthing loaf of wastel, according to the Assizes. The cost and loaf weight relationships used here come from the historic record. The weight of the farthing wastel loaf should be multiplied by the figure noted on the Loaf Weight Multiplier table to determine its market weight, and multiplied by 2 to find its weight as a ha’penny loaf, or multiplied by 4 to find its penny loaf weight.

So in 1388, when grain was relatively cheap at 5d./bushel, wastel farthing loaves weighed 26 oz. (1lb. 10oz.), wheaten bread 40oz. (2lb. 8oz.), and a coarse loaf of unsifted flour 54oz. (3lb. 6oz.). But an adult living in that year would remember the bad year of 1381, only 7 years prior, when a farthing loaf of wastel weighed 14 oz. (0.875lb. loaf, a 46% reduction), wheaten 22 oz. (1lb. 6 oz. loaf, reduced 45%) and even the loaf from unbolted flour only 29 oz. (1lb. 9 oz. loaf, a 47% reduction) would still be a fresh and bitter memory of hard times.

The weights were rounded to the nearest quarter oz., and the scales in use in the period were indeed sensitive enough to detect that fine a difference.

With the information provided for the lowest weight in lean times and the highest weight in time of plenty vs. the average for the period, the GM should have little difficulty in varying the price every year or every (d5) years above or below the average, as desired, and adjusting the weight of the loaves as purchased by the Assize proportionately.

Loaf Weights

Average Price Fg. loaf Hp. loaf D. loaf
Pendemayne 1lb. 5.5oz. 2lb’s 11oz. 5lb’s 6.25oz.
Simnel 1lb. 5.75oz. 2lb’s 11.5oz. 5lb’s 7oz.
Wastel 1lb. 6 oz. 2lb’s 12oz. 5lb’s 8oz.
First cocket 1lb. 6.25oz. 2lb’s 12.5oz. 5lb’s 9oz.
Cocket of corn of lesser price 1lb. 6.75oz. 2lb’s 13.75oz. 5lb’s 11.5oz.
Clean wheat 1.56 2lb’s 2.25oz. 4lb’s 4.75oz. 8lb’s 9.25oz.
Trete, Panis, Bisus 2.00 2lb’s 12oz. 5lb’s 8oz. 11lb’s
Loaf of all corns, mixtil, horse bread 2lb’s 13.5oz. 5lb’s 11oz. 11lb’s 6.25oz.
Time of Plenteous Feast Fg. loaf Hp. loaf D. loaf
Pandemayne 2lb’s 15oz. 6lb’s 13.75oz. 13lb’s 11.5oz.
Simnel 2lb’s 15.5oz. 6lb’s 15oz. 13lb’s 13.75oz.
Wastel 3lb’s 8oz. 7lb’s 14lb’s
First cocket 3lb’s 8.5oz. 7lb’s 1oz. 14lb’s 2.25oz.
Cocket of corn of lesser price 3lb’s 2.25oz. 7lb’s 4.5oz. 14lb’s 9oz
Clean wheat 5lb’s 7.25oz. 10lb’s 14.75oz. 21lb’s 13.5oz.
Trete, Panis, Bisus 7lb’s 14lb’s 28lb’s
Loaf of all corns, mixtil, horse bread 7lb’s 4oz. 14lb’s 7.75oz. 28lb’s 15.75oz.
Time of Pitiless Famine Fg. loaf Hp. loaf D. loaf
Pandemayne 4oz. 7.75oz. 15.75oz.
Simnel 4oz. 8oz. 15.75oz.
Wastel 4oz. 8oz. 1lb.
First cocket 4oz. 8oz. 1lb. 0.25oz.
Cocket of corn of lesser price 4.25oz. 8.25oz. 1lb. 0.75oz.
Clean wheat 6.25oz. 12.5oz. 1lb. 9oz.
Trete, Panis, Bisus 8oz. 1lb. 2lb’s
Loaf of all corns, mixtil, horse bread 8.25oz. 1lb. 0.5oz. 2lb’s 1oz.

Magick and the intervention of the Light could smooth out the peaks and valleys and keep things running somewhat more smoothly, but fluctuations are still possible, especially in times of war when the ruined harvest was not the result of the weather but of the crops being trampled under the hooves and feet of the armies. Local effects could be severe until supplementary grain could be shipped in from another district.

Cost of Wheat/Bushel Weight of Wastel Farthing Loaf
6d. per bushel 1lb. 6oz.
7d. 1hp. per bushel, 1lb. 1oz.
10d. 1hp. per bushel 11.75oz.
1s. per bushel 10.5oz.
1s. 3d. per bushel 8.5oz.
2s. per bushel 5.25oz.
Type of Bread Loaf Weight Multiplier
Pandemayne 0.98
Simnel 0.99
First Cocket 1.01
Cocket of lesser corn 1.04
Clean Wheat 1.56
Trete 2.07

48) Wheat is a volatile commodity, and the price quoted on the roster is only a general average for the period, sort-of a “default” price for the GM to use assuming all circumstances in the locale of the gameworld are stable and the weather has been stable and fair according to expectations.

Year Price/Quarter Price/Bushel Year Price/Quarter Price/Bushel
1270 6s. 4d. 0s. 9d. 1hp. 1316 15s. 11d. 3fg. 2s. 0d.
1271 6s. 11d. 0s. 10d. 1fg. 1317 8s. 3d. 1hp. 1s. 0d. 1hp.
1272 6s. 4d. 1hp. 0s. 9d. 1hp. 1318 4s. 6d. 1hp. 0s. 6d. 3fg.
1273 5s. 5d. 3fg. 0s. 8d. 1fg. 1319 5s. 9d. 1hp. 0s. 8d. 3fg.
1274 6s. 9d. 0s. 10d. 1fg. 1320 6s. 5d. 0s. 9d. 3fg.
1275 5s. 1d. 0s. 7d. 3fg. 1321 11s. 7d. 3fg. 1s. 5d. 1hp.
1276 6s. 2d. 1hp. 0s. 9d. 1fg. 1322 8s. 11d. 3fg. 1s. 1d. 1hp.
1277 5s. 1d. 3fg. 0s. 7d. 3fg. 1323 7s. 5d. 1fg. 0s. 11d. 1fg.
1278 4s. 4d. 1hp. 0s. 6d. 1hp. 1324 7s. 4d. 1hp. 0s. 11d.
1279 5s. 1d. 1fg. 0s. 7d. 3fg. 1325 5s. 8d. 1hp. 0s. 8d. 1hp.
1280 4s. 11d. 3fg. 0s. 7d. 1hp. 1326 3s. 7d. 3fg. 0s. 5d. 1hp.
1281 6s. 0d. 3fg. 0s. 9d. 1327 3s. 11d. 0s. 6d.
1282 5s. 11d. 1hp. 0s. 9d. 1328 6s. 5d. 1hp. 0s. 9d. 3fg.
1283 6s. 11d. 1hp. 0s. 10d. 1hp. 1329 6s. 6d. 1hp. 0s. 9d. 3fg.
1284 4s. 11d. 3fg. 0s. 7d. 1hp. 1330 7s. 2d. 1fg. 0s. 10d. 3fg.
1285 5s. 4d. 1fg. 0s. 8d. 1331 7s. 11d. 1fg. 1s. 0d.
1286 4s. 9d. 0s. 7d. 1fg. 1332 4s. 8d. 1hp. 0s. 7d.
1287 2s. 10d. 1fg. 0s. 4d. 1fg. 1333 4s. 2d. 1fg. 0s. 6d. 1fg.
1288 3s. 0d. 3fg. 0s. 4d. 1hp. 1334 4s. 0d. 0s. 6d.
1289 4s. 3d. 1hp. 0s. 6d. 1hp. 1335 5s. 3d. 1hp. 0s. 8d.
1290 6s. 5d. 1hp. 0s. 9d. 3fg. 1336 4s. 11d. 0s. 7d. 1hp.
1291 5s. 7d. 1hp. 0s. 8d. 1hp. 1337 3s. 7d. 0s. 5d. 1hp.
1292 5s. 4d. 1hp. 0s. 8d. 1338 3s. 2d. 1hp. 0s. 4d. 3fg.
1293 8s. 3d. 0s. 6d. 1hp. 1339 5s. 10d. 3fg. 0s. 8d. 3fg.
1294 9s. 1d. 1hp. 0s. 1s. 1d. 3fg. 1340 3s. 6d. 1hp. 0s. 5d. 1fg.
1295 6s. 9d. 0s. 10d. 1fg. 1341 3s. 9d. 1hp. 0s. 5d. 3fg.
1296 4s. 9d. 1fg. 0s. 7d. 1fg. 1342 4s. 1d. 1hp. 0s. 6d. 1fg.
1297 5s. 2d. 1hp. 0s. 7d. 3fg. 1343 5s. 7d. 3fg. 0s. 8d. 1hp.
1298 5s. 2d. 0s. 7d. 3fg. 1344 3s. 6d. 0s. 5d. 1fg.
1299 6s. 0d. 3fg. 0s. 9d. 1345 3s. 9d. 3fg. 0s. 5d. 3fg.
1300 4s. 9d. 0s. 7d. 1fg. 1346 6s. 10d. 1hp. 0s. 10d. 1fg.
1301 5s. 0s. 7d. 1hp. 1347 6s. 7d. 1fg. 0s. 10d.
1302 4s. 11d. 3fg. 0s. 7d. 1hp. 1348 4s. 2d. 0s. 6d. 1fg.
1303 4s. 1d. 1fg. 0s. 6d. 1fg. In the wake of the Great Plague
1304 5s. 9d. 3fg. 0s. 8d. 3fg. 1349 5s. 5d. 3fg. 0s. 8d. 1fg.
1305 4s. 10d. 3fg. 0s. 7d. 1hp. 1350 8s. 3d. 1s. 0d. 1hp.
1306 3s. 11d. 1fg. 0s. 6d. 1351 10s. 2d. 1hp. 1s. 3d. 1fg.
1307 5s. 6d. 1hp. 0s. 8d. 1fg. 1352 7s. 2d. 0s. 10d. 3fg.
1308 6s. 11d. 1fg. 0s. 10d. 1hp. 1353 4s. 2d. 1hp. 0s. 6d. 1fg.
1309 7s. 9d. 1fg. 0s. 11d. 3fg. 1354 5s. 3d. 3fg. 0s. 8d.
1310 7s. 0d. 1hp. 0s. 10d. 1hp. 1355 5s. 11d. 1fg. 0s. 9d.
1311 4s. 5d. 1fg. 0s. 6d. 3fg. 1356 6s. 0d. 0s. 9d.
1312 4s. 11d. 1fg. 0s. 7d. 1hp. 1357 6s. 10d. 1fg. 0s. 10d. 1fg.
1313 5s. 6d. 1fg. 0s. 8d. 1fg. 1358 5s. 6d. 1hp. 0s. 8d. 1fg.
1314 8s. 4d. 1fg. 0s. 11d. 1359 5s. 11d. 0s. 9d.
1315 14s. 10d. 3fg. 1s. 10d. 1fg. 1360 6s. 3d. 1hp. 0s. 9d. 1hp.

The GM can take this historic price record and apply it to his campaign one year after another just as it falls, in order, or he can take 10-year (or any other length) segments and reorder them as he likes, or he can match the highs and lows to the weather he has already established for his campaign, making the highs in price correspond with wet years and/or drought years where the crop fails or is burned up in the fields, according to how his weather track has been running, or even run the record of average prices backwards, and so on. This resource can be used in whatever way is desired.

The great cities of the ancient (Bronze Age) world had massive granaries for the storage of grain, and great storage pits were dug in which grain was buried. Sealed away from the air only the very top few inches would rot, no air was available to allow such chemical decomposition to continue any further. The balance remained fresh below.

With stockpiling of grain, even though “forestalling” was deemed illegal, the average rise in grain price was only 9-12%, or (d5 + 7)%, by the summer of the following year. This intimates that the people in general stockpiled their own grain at home, whatever they could spare from each harvest. When accounting for the season variance in prices, the GM should start with the average price for the foodstuffs in question (for that year, in regards to wheat) and slowly increase the prices starting with Midwinter and bringing them up to the percentage determined for the year in question at the beginning of August, when the harvest begins.

49) Rock Sugar is crystallized raw sugar that is somewhat less sweet than modern refined sugar, and by its high price was greatly valued in the period.

48 Livestock Cost
Ass, Donkey £0. 4s. 2d.
Bull (breeding stock) £0. 10s. 0d. to

£1. 2s. 6d. Calf£0. 0s. 10d. to

£0. 1s. 8d. Chicken, avg.£0. 0s. 2d. Chicken, fat capon£0. 0s. 4d. Cow£0. 7s. 0d. to

£0. 11s. 0d. Falcon (for lesser Lord or knight)£0. 10s. 0d. Goat, kid£0. 0s. 5d. to

£0. 1s. 1d. Goat, “nanny -” (female), pregnant£0. 0s. 10d. Goose£0. 0s. 6d. Gerfalcon (for a king)£3. 13s. 4d. to

£4. 0s. 0d. Goshawk (for a king)£5. 0s. 0d. to

£10. 0s. 0d. Hare, large£0. 1s. 0d. Hawk/FalconNoble breed£0. 10s. 0d. to

£3. 0s. 0d.  Royal breed£3. 0s. 0d. to

£10. 0s. 0d. Hawk, wild (“mew de haye”)£0. 0s. 1d. 1hp. to

£0. 0s. 3d. Hive of Bees£0. 3s. 4d. Horse“Affer” (common farm horse)£0. 10s. 0d. HorseSumpter-/Palfrey/Rouncey

(work, riding-)£1. 6s. 8d. to

£7. 6s. 8d.  “Cart Horse”£1. 13s. 9d. to

£5. 7s. 8d.  Bay (Buttery cart)£2. 0s. 0d.  Rouncey

“for the Seneschal of Oldinton”

£2. 4s. 6d.  Rouncey

“for the Provost of Queen’s College”

£2. 10s. 0d.  Sorrel (long cart of the Kitchens)£3. 0s. 0d.  Piebald Bay

(saddlebags, Queen’s Marshalsea)

£4. 0s. 0d.  Dun (short cart of the Chamber)£4. 13s. 4d.  Bay Palfrey£5. 0s. 0d.  White Sumpter (Queen’s bed)£5. 6s. 8d.  Dapple-gray (coffers of the Pantry)£5. 13s. 4d.  White (effects of Queen’s Confessor)£6. 0s. 0d.  Rouncey

“for the Warden of Merton College”

£6. 0s. 0d.  Chestnut Palfrey£6. 6s. 8d.  Iron Gray Palfrey£6. 13s. 4d.  Dun (long cart, Great Wardrobe)£7. 6s. 8d.  Rouncey, stallion£2. 0s. 0d.  Rouncey, stallion (breeding stock)£20. 0s. 0d. HorseCharger/Courser

(Light War -, Hunting -)£20. 0s. 10d. to

£54. 0s. 0d.  Black Charger (Queen’s Household)£40. 0s. 0d.  Bay Charger

(a “palfrey” for the Queen)

£53. 6s. 8d.  morel Courser, star (black, white star)£40. 0s. 0d.  ferraunt Courser (iron-gray)£25. 0s. 0d.  morel Courser, two white feet (black)

white Courser w/all black hooves

£24. 0s. 0d.  ferraunt pomele Courser (iron-gray dappled),

veyron Courser, all white hooves


£20. 0s. 0d. Horse“Great -”/Destrier (heavy war-)£12. 0s. 0d. to

£100. 0s. 0d.  grisel pomele (gray dappled),

grisel ferraunt (iron gray),

£60. 0s. 0d.  roan destrier

morel poleyn (black knees)

£50. 0s. 0d.  ferraunt pomele (iron-gray dappled),

ferraunt of silver (iron gray of silver),

lyard roan bauzan (pied pearl & roan),



£40. 0s. 0d.  Morel (all black)£24. 0s. 0d.  roan sorrel, bay bauzan (pied bay)£10. 0s. 0d. Larks, ea.£0. 0s. 0d. 1fg. Mallard£0. 0s. 3d. 1hp. Ox£0. 7s. 0d. to

£0. 15s. 0d. Partridge£0. 0s. 4d. 1hp. Peacock£0. 2s. 0d. to

£0. 5s. 0d. Pheasant£0. 2s. 0d. Pig£0. 4s. 0d. Pigeon£0. 0s. 0d. 1hp. Ponywork£0. 9s. 6d. to

£0. 14s. 0d.  riding£1. 12s. 0d. to

£2. 0s. 0d. Rabbit£0. 0s. 3d. 1hp. to

£0. 0s. 5d. Sheep, average£0. 1s. 0d. to

£0. 1s. 5d.  Wether (castrated male)£0. 1s. 3d.  Curly fleece (+10% wool yield)£0. 2s. 6d.  Ram (breeding stock)£0. 3s. 0d. to

£0. 5s. 5d. Slave (humanoid, young but adult, healthy)£1. 0s. 0d. to

£5. 10s. 0d. Swan£0. 3s. 9d. to

£0. 7s. 0d.

Notes on Livestock

48) These costs are but bases for the commonest of mounts, the player should see the GM to get prices for better animals. As strange as it may seem, the price of a horse does vary with its color. This is due to the fact that the horse’s temperament was supposed to reflected in its color, black beasts believed to be the most evil and intractable to break in and train.

The prices for all livestock may be as high as four times normal from the end of October or beginning of November through the winter to early May, due to the fact that all extra animals that cannot be fed through the winter are slaughtered in November. This is why the Anglo-Saxons called it Bloodmonth.

The player will please note that he will have to pay for fodder and feed for all of his horses during the winter, as forage alone will lack the nutritive value that it has during the warm months. If the character can find forage on his own or unclaimed lands during the winter, he will only have to pay for grain (beans, peas, oats) for feed, not fodder. The amount of feed and fodder horses require will vary with the type of horse (its STA and Build), as will the amount of water they require (see GM).

Livestock & Carcasses,

Weight & Meat Yields

The following information is provided for the benefit of the GM in dealing with those characters, especially those who are Husbandmen, who want to take their meat along with them live, on-the-hoof, and slaughter them as needed. This is a good solution, and true to the period, but creates its own set of difficulties. Determining a) the beast’s live weight, b) the carcass weight, c) the amount of meat yielded, d) the amount of good, hard fats (tallow) for candles, soaps, medicines, magical preparations can be problematic.

The information on the following table is based on archeological bone studies.

Cattle Live Weight
Period Min. Avg. Max.
Anglo Saxon 117 600 1250
Medieval 379 612 771
Late Medieval 83 512 980

The “Late Medieval” entry falls within the aftermath of the Plague.

BUT the live weight is not all good meat for the eating to sustain the characters. From the average 600lb. beef carcass, only roughly 70 – 85% of the carcass weight will actually be meat, or approximately 440-450lb’s.

That is a modern animal, however. Historically, the animals the characters will know will not have been subjected to the intense breeding programs, dietary manipulation, and supplementation of the modern animals.

Indeed, in England as late as 1710, the average carcass weight of an ox was about 370lb’s. Due to the efforts of husbandry by the end of the 1700’s this had been increased to c. 550lb.

The town council of Aberdeen in the 1500’s and 1600’s met to set the price of sheep carcasses but usually shied away from setting any fixed price on beef carcasses because their size was SO variable.

The average dressed weight for a hog is 155 lb’s, of which the yield in meat is c. 88 – 92lb’s, or 68 – 72% of the total carcass.

“Killing-out” percentages
Grade of Cattle Yield
Store Cattle 50 to 51 %
Fresh Store cattle 52 to 53 %
Moderately Fat Cattle 54 to 57 %
Fat Cattle 58 to 62 %
Very Fat Cattle 62 to 65 %

The “killing-out” percentages in the table above expresses the percentage of the live weight that remains after the beast is killed and dressed out, the weight of the resulting carcass. Medieval and Anglo-Saxon cattle had an estimated killing-out percentage of c. 45%, but closer to 50% if fattened for market beforehand.

The following is provided for the GM to use as a guideline for the composition of a cattle carcass after the beast is slaughtered and the carcass weight has been determined.

Composition of a Cow Carcass
Yield Lean Avg. Fat
Lean Meat 66% 59% 50%
Edible Fats 13% 21% 32%
Tallow Fat * 3% 4% 5%
Bone 18% 16% 13%

* Kidney knob and channel fat

Prior to the fashion for breeding fatter animals, pre-1700’s, the beasts would have been at the leaner end of the range, with a total fat content of 15% being considered appropriate. The following table contrasts the percentages of composition between the live animal and the carcass.

Yield Carcass Live
Lean Meat 66% 33%
Edible Fats 12% 6%
Tallow (“hard”) Fat 4% 2%
Bone 18% 9%
Remainder † 50%

† head, hide, and entrails

The percentages of edible flesh could range as high as 78% of the carcass or 39% of the live animal, a variance of as much as 11% in the carcass, which might be the direct affect of the skills of the Husbandman who had raised the beast to provide meat for his table, approximately 1% per 4 TR’s.

Cattle Breeds & Carcass Weights, c. 1814

Breed Min. Avg. Max.
Highland cattle
best 3 yr (1/2) 364 420
Norlands *
Oxen 440
Cows 180
Galloway cattle
best 3 yr 574
best 4 yr 798
Northeastern breeds
4 or 5 yr stot ** 560 672
Fife breeds
best 3 yr bullocks 448
The Wild breed, or White Cattle
Oxen 490 630
Cows 350 490

* Orkney and Shetland, the smallest breed in Britain

** These had doubled in size over previous 30 years through breeding and winter feeding on turnips, considered to be paramount to producing large beasts, this practice only general towards the end of the 1700’s.

Live weight upwards of 1600 lb’s were considered large by Scottish standards, but still only half the size of the largest English Shorthorns.

As late as 1779, “Isle of Skye cows” weighed only 321lb’s each in carcass vs. an average of 624lb’s for 16 oxen at Castle Gordon.

“In Midlothian they were ‘short legged and thick bodied’ and weighed on average between 418 and 627 lb, while in Fife they weighed, when fattened for the butcher, from 525 to 1,044lb.”


Among sheep, medieval breeds are considered equivalent to modern in live weight. A 80lb. ram yields a carcass weighing roughly 40lb’s.; a 55lb. ewe yields a carcass weighing roughly 27lb’s; a mature Orkney wether roughly a 30lb. carcass and about 23.5 lb’s of flesh; a mature Shetland wether roughly a 32lb. carcass.

Hebridean † 2o lb *
Blackface fat wether 52 lb
ewe 4o lb
Cheviot wether ** 6o- 72 lb
draft wether 48 – 6o lb
Leicester or Dishley young wether 8o – I2o lb
ewe 64- Io4 lb
Old Fife † 33 – 36 lb ***
Midlothian 52 lb (max.)
Shetland † 32 lb

† local remnants of the native white-face breed, ousted by the Cheviot and the Blackface. The quality of the wool clip of the white-face breed was unsurpassed, but as the animals were small, so was the wool clip yield.

* often much less.

** winter fed on turnips, considered to be paramount to producing larger beasts, in the same manner as cows.

*** even when fat.

Unimproved animals tend to have a lower carcass weight relative to live weight. In modern breeds ranging from 50-60%, with an average c. 50% kill-out of live to carcass weight. In unimproved breeds, roughly 18% carcass weight will be bone. The carcass of a sheep about to die of prolonged malnutrition, however, can be as low as 30%.

Based on archeological bone studies, the following figures are proposed for “pre-historic” Soay sheep.

Composition of a Sheep Carcass
Yield Carcass Live
Lean Meat 66% 33%
Edible Fats 12% 6%
Tallow Fat 4% 2%
Bone 18% 9%
Remainder † 50%

† head, hide, and entrails

The GM will note that this is the same as that for cattle, above, and the same figures should be used for pigs and oxen, as well.

49 Husbandry & Gear Wt. Cost
Beehive (empty skep) £0. 0s. 0d. 3fg.
Bell, sheep’s- £0. 0s. 3d.
Bit, bridle, & reins 3 £0. 1s. 8d.
Bit for a colt (“loose”) £0. 0s. 8d.
Blanket, saddle-, 3ft. x 5ft. (wool) 3 £0. 0s. 4d.
Branding or “Marking” iron £0. 1s. 6d. 1hp.
Bridle £0. 0s. 8d.
Cart saddle, collar & pr. reins £0. 1s. 2d.
Cinch, Girth, Surcingle £0. 0s. 2d. to

£0. 1s. 6d. Collar, horse- £0. 0s. 4d. Collar, harness & halter (draught)130£0. 1s. 11d. Coulter, for a plough £0. 1s. 0d.50Gerfalcon’s keep, per day £0. 0s. 4d. Halter1.5£0. 0s. 8d. Hay, per cartload £0. 5s. 1d. 1hp. Hay & Grass, per horse, per day


£0. 0s. 1d. Horsecloth/Trapper (3.5 yds) Common £0. 1s. 3d. Horseshoe, “Great-”, ea. £0. 0s. 1d. 1hp. Horseshoe nails (10) £0. 0s. 0d. 1hp. Housing for a foal £0. 0s. 10d. Lock & chain, to hobble horse £0. 1s. 8d. Manuring by sheep-folding, per acre £0. 3s. 0d. Manuring by cart, per acre £0. 5s. 0d. Net for taking wild hawks £0. 0s. 3d. Plough, complete (frame, share, coulter, shoe & clouts for the mould-board)

£0. 4s. 0d. Plough frame £0. 1s. 0d. Ploughsharelight £0. 0s. 3d.  heavy £0. 0s. 6d. Sedan Chair, Palanquin, Horse-litter

(boxchair on poles, covered, curtained)


£0. 9s. 0d. Seedcod (carry seed while sowing) £0. 0s. 2d. 1fg. Sponge “for the stables” £0. 0s. 6d. Strigil (to scrape the horses down) £0. 0s. 2d. Ox bow £0. 0s. 1hp. Ox yoke £0. 0s. 2d.51Pannierscommon8£0. 1s. 0d.  iron-bound £0. 3s. 5d.52Saddle, light ridingCommon13£0. 5s. 6d. to

£0. 6s. 8d.  High £0. 6s, 8d. to

£0. 10s. 0d.53Saddle, war/tourneyCommon40£0. 6s. 8d. to

£0. 10s. 0d.  High40£0. 10s. 0d. to

£0. 16s. 0d.  Luxurious40£0. 18s. 0d. to

£1. 0s. 4d. Saltstone “for a dovecote” £0. 0s. 2d. 1hp.54Sumpter Cloth/Trapper, linen10£0. 3s. 5d. 1fg. Whip, Drovers’ £0. 0s. 2d.

Notes on Husbandry & Gear

49) The character will commonly need the bit, bridle, and reins, a saddle, and saddle blanket to ride a horse. Riding without a saddle blanket will chafe the horse and hurt him, requiring Horseman checks to keep him going. The player is reminded that only characters with the Horseman skill at the Warden LoA will be able to ride “bareback” (on a blanket without a saddle), and without the use of a bit, bridle, and reins only if the character has achieved the Artisan LoA as a Horseman.

50) This rate includes only feed, goods, and materials, per day, and does NOT include the Falconer’s wages.

51) Panniers are saddle baskets for beasts of burden. They are woven of wicker, grasses, or rushes and come in pairs that form yokes to straddle the back of the pack animal. Their volume will be roughly 7 cubic feet, holding items no larger than about 24″ to 36″ in any dimension (GM’s discretion).

52) The player of the female character may be interested to know that women in England did not ride side-saddle until the 1300’s, and then it was the exception rather than the rule for women to ride so. As such, the character may have to search a bit to find a saddler to make one, the player should check with the GM. Sidesaddles will cost as much as the base cost for a war or tourney saddle.

53) The war or tourney saddle may be equipped with “jambes”, at the player’s option. Jambes are the part of a medieval saddle that extend from the saddle bow out and downwards to defend the legs, in the manner of cuisses, encasing the Thigh AoD’s. Using such defenses allowed knights to avoid having to wear the upper part of the leg harness. They came into use during the 1400’s and remained in use, especially on jousting saddles throughout the 15-1600’s. Adding jambes increases the weight and cost of the saddle according to the quality of steel used, evaluated in the same manner as armor (which in fact the jambes are).

Jambe Quality Additional Wt. Additional Cost
Strong 3 £0. 1s. 11d.
Proof 4 £0. 2s. 7d.
Double Proof 5 £0. 3s. 4d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 6 £0. 3s. 10d. 1hp.

54) A Sumpter Cloth, also known as a “trapper”, is a loose robe or cloak made of a light linen originally for spreading over a horse to keep the sun off or, when made of a heavier fabric, to protect him from taking a chill while he is cooling down after working up a sweat. When used by nobles, especially those riding into war, they are more commonly intended to keep sun and road dust off and also used as a means of displaying the owners colors and coat of arms so these important persons can be identified easily at a distance. Sumpter cloths of high color and fine fabric are commonly used by the nobility to clothe their valuable horses in high style when riding their mounts out among the general public, as a mark of their social rank.

IF the player would like an especially fine sumpter cloth for his noble or wealthy character’s mount, the types of cloth available and the definitions and aspects peculiar to them and the cloth trade are discussed in the notes immediately following the Cloth, Clothing & Apparel roster.

  Cloth, Clothing & Apparel Wt. Cost
a Blaunchet, per ell Low £0. 0s. 5d. 1hp.

to £0. 0s. 8d.  Common £0. 0s. 9d. to

£0. 1s. 6d.bBluet, per ellLow £0. 0s. 6d. to

£0. 0s. 8d.  Common £0. 0s. 8d. to

£0. 1s. 11d.  High £0. 2s. 0d. to

£0. 5s. 3d. Bodice (ladies’)3.5£0. 0s. 9d. Boots, soft soleCommon £0. 1s. 10d.  High £0. 2s. 9d. Boots, mid-calf, hard sole (High)3£0. 3s. 6d. Breeks, knee-length2.75£0. 1s. 6d. 1hp.cBurnett, per ellHigh £0. 4s. 0d.  Luxurious £0. 8s. 0d.dBurel, per yardHigh £0. 3s. 4d. Buskins, mid-calf (soft boots, Common)1.75£0. 0s. 10d. Button (dross, common pot-metal), ea. £0. 0s. 0d. 1hp.eCamlet, per ellCommon £0. 1s. 8d. to

£0. 3s. 0d.  High £0. 3s. 0d. to

£0. 4s. 0d.  Luxurious £0. 17s. 2d. CapLow 1d  Common 6d.  High 1s. Cape, elbow to hip length    common3.75£0. 1s. 11d.  well-to-do (lined)5.5£0. 2s. 6d.  noble (lined, fine cloth)7.75£0. 3s. 10d Cape-coat, hip-length (upper class)14.5£0. 6s. 8d. Cloak, mid-calf to ankle length (4 yd)    Low6£0. 4s. 0d.  Common6£0. 9s. 0d.  High (lined)8.25£0. 12s. 0d. Cloak, “double” (full circle, 8 yd)    Low6£0. 8s. 0d.  Common6£0. 18s. 0d.  High (lined)8.25£1. 5s. 0d. Cloth of Gold, in silk, per ell £1. 6s. 8d. to

£8. 0s. 0d.1Cote Armor/Jupon (noble, silk)10£2. 0s. 10d. Deerskin, ea. 2d. 1hp. DoubletCommon5£0. 1s. 7d.  High (lined)7£0. 4s. 3d. to

£0. 5s. 10d. Fur, lambskin, ea. £0. 0s. 2d. Fur, rabbit skin, ea. £0. 0s. 1d. Fur lining, knight’s robes, “Squirrel & Stanlyng” (vair & grey) £0. 7s. 0d. to

£0. 12s. 0d. Fur lining for a robe, “popul” (squirrel) £0. 14s. 0d. 1fg. Fur trim for a tabbard, Common

(coney bellies)

£0. 2s. 8d. Fur, miniver, “minitum verum

(mini-vair), per skin £0. 0s. 4d. to

£0. 0s. 7d. Fur trim, fine, for a mantle £1. 5s. 0d.fFustian, per ellLow £0. 0s. 5d. Girdle, cloth1£0. 1s. 3d. Girdle, metal links & lockets2£0. 0s. 8d. Girdle, ribbon (ladies’ belt)0.5£0. 0s. 4d. GlovesLow1£0. 0s. 1d.  Common1£0. 0s. 6d.  High1£0. 1s. 8d. Gown, Ladies’Low9£0. 4s. 0d.  Common10.5£0. 8s. 0d. Gown, man’s, Common (blue) £0. 2s. 6d. to

£0. 4s. 0d. Gown, man’s (red) £0. 8s. 0d. Gown, Master CraftsmanHigh £0. 12s. 0d.gHaircloth, per ellLow £0. 0s. 2d.  Common £0. 0s. 6d. Hat, furred “for a bishop” £0. 3s. 1d. HoodLow £0. 0s. 4d.  Common £0. 0s. 10d. Hood, furred, Common £0. 1s. 8d. 3fg. Hood, “of whole squirrel”

(knight’s station or higher, only) £1. 0s. 9d. to

£1. 18s. 0d. Hood, miniver, 20 skins £0. 6s. 8d. Hood of Budge £0. 1s. 6d. Hook (- and eye, dress fastenings), ea. £0. 0s. 2d. Hose, Common quality

(kersey, worsted wool, etc.)

£0. 1s. 0d. Hose, “boy’s” £0. 0s. 9d. 1hp. Hose, High quality up to £0. 4s. 0d.2Houpelande (noble, fine cloth)18£0. 15s. JerkinLow1.5£0. 0s. 7d.  Common2.5£0. 0s. 11d.  leather, Low2.25£0. 0s. 8d. 1hp.  leather, Common, lined3.25£0. 1s. 1d. Lacing, silk (to close a dress) 2d.hKersey, per ellCommon £0. 1s. 2d. Lincoln, Common green wool, per ell £0. 1s. 10d. to

£0. 3s. 2d.iLinen, per ell    Low (napkins) £0. 0s. 1d. 1fg.  Low (tablecloths) £0. 0s. 2d. 1hp.  Low (gauze to wrap meat) £0. 0s. 2d. 3fg.  Common (general + napkins) £0. 0s. 3d.  High (general + sheets) £0. 0s. 8d.  High (shirts) £0. 1s. 0d. to

£0. 2s. 0d.  Luxurious, “sindon” or “lawn” £0. 2s. 0d. to

£0. 4s. 6d.3MantleCommon3.75£0. 3s. 4d.  High (nun’s) £0. 5s. 0d.  High (nun’s, lined) £0. 8s. 0d.  High (worsted wool)5.5£0. 6s. 8d.  High (nun’s, worsted wool) £0. 10s. 0d.  of shankes (Common fur, cheap rabbit-belly)


£0. 5s. 4d.  of good Common fur8£0. 6s. 8d.  miniver trim + hood, High £0. 26s. 3d.jMurrey, per ellHigh £0. 3s. 0d. Pantofles, men’s1.75£0. 0s. 4d. Pattens, women’s2£0. 0s. 2d. 1hpkPaonnace, per ell £0. 1s. 9.d to

£0. 1s. 11d. Peacock tail (whole fan of feathers) £0. 0s. 4d. 3fg.lPerse, per ellCommon £0. 1s. 8d. to

£0. 2s. 6d.  High £0. 3s. 4d. to

£0. 4s. 6d. Points, for laces (6) £0. 0s. 1d. Purse, well-to-do “manor bailiff” £0. 0s. 4d. Purse, silk “for a squire” £0. 0s. 9d.mRayed, per ellCommon £0. 1s. 7d.  High £0. 4s. 2d.n High, dyed in grain (red) £0. 8s. 0d.oRusset, per ellLow £0. 0s. 2d.  Common £0. 1s. 0d.  High £0. 3s. 4d. Schaub (traveler’s coat)    Common9.75£0. 0s. 10d.  High (lined)14.5£0. 3s. 1d.pSamite, “Six-Thread”, per ell

(Sumptuous) £1. 6s. 0d. to

£1. 8s. 10d.pSamite, “saffron”, per ell (Sumptuous) £4. 0s. 0d.qSaye, per ell (domestic, black) £0. 3s. 0d. to

£0. 4s. 0d.rSendal, per ellLuxurious £0. 13s. 0d. to

£0. 14s. 5d.sSerge, per ellLow £0. 0s. 2d. 3fg.  Common (black) £0. 10d. 1hp. Shirt (men’s)3£0. 1s. 0d. Shift,hip-length (women’s)3£0. 1s. 0d.  ankle-length (women’s)5.5£0. 1s. 3d. ShoesCommon £0. 0s. 4d. 1hp.  “Warden of a College” £0. 0s. 7d.  “for a Countess’ laundress” £0. 1s. 0d.  “good leather”2£0. 1s. 4d. Skirt, common4.5£0. 1s. 8d. Slippers, Common £0. 0s. 8d. Slippers, “for a bishop” £0. 2s. 0d. Spurs, pairCommon £0. 0s. 3d.  Silver-gilt, for Squires £0. 0s. 6d.  Gilded, for Knights £0. 1s. 5d. Stragulatus, per ellHigh £0. 3s. 4d. Surcoat, common knight’s3.5£0. 1s. 4d.4Surcoat, noble4£0. 2s. 11d. Scholar’s Robes    Common9£0. 3s. 4d. 1hp.  High (lined)15.75£0. 5s. 5d. Tabbard (for the son of a bishop’s principle servant)

£0. 3s. 9d. Tabbard (for a master carpenter) £0. 5s. 0d. Tabbard of Bluet (for a bishop’s clerk) £0. 5s. 7d.rTaffata (silk), per ellHigh £0. 3s. 10d. 1fg.tTirretin, marbled, per ellHigh £0. 3s. 6d.5Torse & Mantling (noble, High cloth)2£0. 2s. 0d. Trews/gaskins (pants)cloth2.5£0. 0s. 10d. to

£0. 1s. 3d.  leather £0. 1s. 0d. to

£0. 1s. 6d. Tunic, russet (Low)3.25£0. 1s. 6d. Tunic (Common) £0. 2s. 1d. Under-skirt (upper class)5£0. 2s. 4d. Veil/Whimple £0. 0s. 11d.uVelvet, per ell (Sumptuous) £1. 4s. 9d. to

£2. 0s. 0d. Wool, per ell    Common, dyed (common color) £0. 1s. 3d. Wool, per ell    High, viridian (green) £0. 4s. 0d.vWool, per ell    Luxurious, “Scarlet of Lincoln” £0. 7s. 0d.wWool, marbled £0. 1s. 3d.xWorsted Wool, per ellHigh £0. 4s. 0d.  Luxurious, “like silk” £0. 16s. 0d.

Notes on Cloth, Clothing & Apparel

There is a great deal of variety to be faced when one starts talking medieval fabrics. As wide a variety as could be found is encapsulated here, but the GM should be aware that there are varieties for which no useable data on prices could be ascertained. These are discussed following the lettered notes regarding the types of fabrics which could be more fully represented. because the fabrics are referred to in several of the entries for articles of clothing, cloth is discussed and notes presented first, followed by a discussion of clothing and apparel and the attendant notes.

Very nearly ALL of the fabrics represented on the roster indicate both a certain type of cloth and a color, BUT, not all – there are russets both white and black, as well as brown, which indicates that the fabric is most likely un-dyed and simply has the natural color of the wool of the sheep from whom it was sheared.

Almost every type of fabric is made in a number of grades, sometimes spanning from Low to Luxurious (Sumptuous having been reserved strictly for those fabrics of the most valuable materials, silk, silver, gold, and combinations thereof). Gris is simply a grey wool, while griseng is specifically that grey wool which is made for the poorest folk, taking its color from the raw wool, un-dyed. Some fabrics are only made in poorer grades (blaunchet or blanket), and the names of others denote only the very best in quality, such as a scarlet (see note to follow).

The entries representing the various types of cloth are all easily identified by being marked with the rate “per ell”. The “ell” in the English system is standard at 45 in’s, or one and one quarter yards.

Those entries which are followed by an entry in parenthesis, especially where the price quoted is a single number rather than a range of prices, denote a price found during research that was attached to a purchase for a particular purpose, such as (napkins) or (tablecloth) or (gauze to wrap meat), in the same manner as those marked by an entry in quotes, such as “for a squire”, or the like, or may denote further details of what exactly the price quoted refers to, such as (kersey, worsted wool, etc.) describing the types of cloth encompassed by the price indicated for the “Hose, Common quality” entry.

  1. a) Blaunchet is a very coarse, inferior woolen cloth worn by lower classes and used for bed coverings.
  2. b) Bluet is considered one of the cheaper blue cloths, however the better varieties are still considered acceptable for daily wear by wealthy commoners and members of the lower ranks of nobility.
  3. c) Burnett (13th century onwards) a popular cloth commonly used for making hose, normally blue-black in color, but the name can indicate other similarly dark colors, especially brown.
  4. d) Burel(c.1300 onwards), a thick woolen cloth which can be found in all grades dyed a dark red color.
  5. e) Camlet(known in 1254), a light weight cloth from the East, usually a kind of mohair or angora wool woven from camel or goat, later of mixed materials, half silk/half hair. Usually bought with the nap very long and shorn before making up into clothing.
  6. f) Fustian, also called bombast, is a fabric originally made by weaving two sets of cotton wefts, or fillings, on a linen warp, popular during the European Middle Ages, having a short nap or pile like velveteen or corduroy, sometimes called “mock-velvet”.

Fustian originated in Al-Fustat (now part of Cairo) around the 3rd century, and gradually spread westward. There were guilds of fustian weavers in Spain and Italy by the 13th century. Its production spread northward as it gained in popularity; southern Germany and Switzerland had a rising fustian industry in the 14th century; frieze is a napped woolen cloth, similar to fustian, originally Irish; falding, faldyn a coarse, woolen cloth resembling frieze.

  1. g) Haircloth, also called sack cloth, is a rather stiff, relatively un-supplefabric typically made with a warp (lengthwise threads) of linen, wool, or cotton and a woof (cross fiber) ofgoat hair and/or the wooly hair of a  To wear sack cloth and ashes for religious purposes is a sign of repentance and atonement. Worn as an undergarment close to the skin, the itchiness is a constant discomfort, prolonged use is a corporal mortification, adopted by the devout among both the pious laity (especially as penance for adorning oneself, the Vice of Vanity) and those inducted unto the Church – commonly used by members of the Mystic trade.
  2. h) Kersey 14th century) is a coarse type of say or saye fabric (see description following); kerseymere(14th century) is a particularly fine variety of kersey.
  3. i) Lawn (14th century) very fine, even semi-transparent, linen cloth used among the very wealthy and noble for shirts, shifts and “small clothes”. Lakeis a kind of fine linen, not as fine as lawn.
  4. j) Murrey is a woolen fabric dark blood red or claret, purplish red in color, like the juice of a mulberry, neither as bright nor as expensive as true reds.
  5. k) Paonnace, pounacious is a good fabric of reddish violet color.
  6. l) Perse (13th & 14th century) is a fabric of a bluish-gray or dark blue serge (see description following) of good to excellent quality.
  7. m) Ray, raye, rayed cloth refers to striped cloth, but this is rather vague, as the actual appearance of the stripes could vary greatly, as shown in numerous paintings and illuminations of the period. Very broad swaths of alternating light and dark colors, or a color and a light neutral color or white were favored for some cloths, wide panels of flat color from 8 to 12 in’s in width, and some even as wide as 24in’s, with a thin pair or trio of pin stripes running through the center of the lighter band. When made up into clothing, these fabrics are worn so the “rayes” or stripes run horizontally across the body. Other rayed cloth utilizes a thin line or two or three of contrasting color like pinstripes, but at wide intervals, sometimes framing a figured “raye” between alternating pairs of pinstripes, and in some cases the contrasting color may alternate from a lighter hue to a darker hue – red might well be alternated with white on a saffron ground, for example. This extended description is intended to show the GM that just about anything the PC’s may want in the way of decorative fabrics is likely to be available, but with a distinctly medieval take on the style or its use in fashion.
  8. n) Dyed in grain indicates the materials have been dyed before woven, either wholly or in part, but also to indicate the use of a costly and colorfast red dye, especially scarlets, crimsons and purple.
  9. o) Russetis a woolen cloth from which the predominant color in which it was found took its name, in the same manner as “scarlet”, its dark reddish brown color achieved by tinting natural wool with an iron oxide (rust) dye, or may be of undyed black or charcoal colored wool, as the fabric is sometimes described as dark or black. Like many other fabrics listed, such as bluet or serge, russets can vary in quality from low to high. Eleanor, countess of Colchester, wore very fine russets.
  10. p) Samiteis a rich silk, either plain or figured (patterned), of a twill-type weave sometimes interwoven with gold or silver threads; “Six-Thread” refers to the use of six varying yarns in the warp. By the later medieval period, the termsamite was applied to any rich, heavy silk material which had a satin-like gloss. Indeed, the name “satin” began as a term referring to lustrous samite. The price quoted refers to samite of either red, green or white color.
  11. q) Say, sayeis a thin woolen serge.
  12. r) Sendal  a type oftaffataof varying quality, used for anything from banners and tents to clothes; taffata (14th century onwards) is a fabric of a plain glossy silk; raffata 14th century taffeta; tartarin, tartaryn, tartarinus, tartaire 14th century silk made in Tartary, as in “Tartaryn taffeta”.
  13. s) Serge, a type of loosely woven worsted twill characterized by diagonal lines or ridges on both sides (the same pattern of weave that can be seen in modern denim), available in varying qualities; serge radiatais a striped woolen fabric (see the description of rayed cloth, previously); cary, carry-marry, caurimauri(14th century) a coarse serge used by lower classes.
  14. t) Tirretin, tiretaine(13th century) is a fine woolen cloth, usually scarlet in color, but in this instance is marbled by mixing colors in the warp and weft threads to create a variegated appearance.
  15. u) Velvet(mid 13th century, first record) is a fabric of silk with a short, dense and rich plush pile; velvet upon velvetor pile on pile (15th century) is composed of two piles of velvet, in which one pile is raised above the other in the weaving to form a pattern.
  16. v) Scarlet is a rich & expensive fabric with costly finishing process, most likely dyed (at least partly) “in grain” (see note “n”, above). Most prestigous was the Lincoln scarlet. Later used to describe a color dyed in grain (red).
  17. w) Marbled, marbrinus(14th century) worsted wool fabric with a pale warp and colored weft to create a marbled appearance.
  18. x) Worsted wool yarn or thread is produced from long-fiber wool which is combed prior to spinning so the fibers all lie parallel. This allows a very fine hard and strong, smooth and lustrous yarn or thread to be produced, but it can only be spun so fine by a very skilled hand and only with the distaff. The spinning wheel was for use with carded wool and produced a fluffier ‘woolen’ yarn as opposed to a true thread.

1) A Cote Armor or jupon is a quilted garment generally of only a single finger’s thickness which is worn over a breastplate or cote of plates (brigandine coat) or as the sole defense during the 1300’s. Such armors were popular in England since they required little technical skill to manufacture (a tailor’s stitching as opposed to the fire and hammers of the armorer’s forge). In addition, they were light and as such easy to transport. Popular amongst men-at-arms and archers, they were often worn with the chapel-de-fer.

2) A Houpelande is a garment common to the nobility from the mid to late 1300’s and extending in various forms into the mid- and late 1400’s. It is characterized by long, flowing “angel wing” sleeves, sometimes dagged in many interesting patterns, with a hem that could vary from hip length to mid-thigh, to knee length, or to floor length, slashed from hem to hip when occurring in longer lengths to show fashionable hose or expensive under-robe fabrics, some even having a train which can be yards long. Historically, they were generally worn as court attire but a variety of this garment seems to have been adopted in place of the surcoat, particularly in Germany during the late 1300’s.

3) Miniver is mini-vair, or small squirrel, the mottled belly fur of the gray northern squirrel, the “vair and gray” (belly and back) together being reserved solely for the use of those of a knight’s dignity and higher. Other types of squirrel furs are “Stanlyng”, “Ruskin” and “Popul”.

3) A Surcoat is a loose, sleeveless cloth garment worn by a (noble) knight over his armor to keep the sun from heating up the armor and baking him in it, and also to keep off the road dust. Surcoats will usually be emblazoned with the “cote of arms” or heraldic device of the wearer in order that he be identifiable by his own men and allies in the crush of battle, or by whoever should find him should he fall to misfortune.

During the 14th century they were gradually shortened from their original 1200’s knee-length lines. They started out during the first quarter of the century at knee-length, and ended the century with the hem having risen to just below the line of the crotch or hip. During the 1400’s they were shortened a few inches more, and eventually abandoned in favor of a large tunic worn over the cuirass. The advent of White Armor made the use of a surcoat somewhat less important, as full harnesses of plate were generally made to order and as such somewhat more individualized in character and appearance.

4) A Torse is a colorful cloth roll worn like a crown around the top of a knight’s helm, which holds the Mantling or decorative cloth draping in place that hangs from it down to the shoulders and mid-back. The torse and mantling were always made of cloth in the colors of the arms of the wearer. Used from the 1200’s through the 1400’s, torses and mantling helped to identify the knight in war and provided a colorful expression of pride in lineage for tournaments and pageants of the sort that were so popular in the 1400’s.

In addition to those Luxurious and Sumptuous fabrics for which reference could be found to supply values for use in the game, there remain a few others of which the GM should be aware, but for whom the GM will have to formulate what he considers to be a fair price in the context of his game if he wishes to include them or has PC’s specifically seeking to use one of them.

Damask is a rich patterned heavy material ornamented on the surface with leaves, vines, flowers or other patterns having a large running and repeating figure, achieved as a product of the method of weaving as opposed to being printed or stamped on the surface of the finished cloth. Due to the method in which it is created, woven into the fabric, the pattern appears with the color-scheme reversed on the back of the fabric. The word “damasked” when applied to linen textures or to mixed materials when used for upholstery purposes, has much the same meaning as “brocaded” when applied to silk and wool textures.

Diapered, diaspres is an embroidered Persian brocade, most commonly silk, but also silk, linen & cotton woven with structured, connected, repeating geometric patterns all of one color, especially white on white.

Baudekin also baldekin, baldachin, baldaquin. fabric made with a warp of gold thread and a woof of silk, often figured; imperial medieval originally made at Byzantium; a silk fabric with figures in colours and gold thread, also “cloth imperial”, known as baudekyn later on.

Paris was the centre of tapestry weaving until the Hundred Years War (1337 – 1453) caused the weavers to flee north via Arras to Flanders (now Belgium and northern France). Many of the best known works, such as the ‘Lady with the Unicorn’ series, were woven at the turn of the 15th century (l.1400’s) in the Loire valley. Approximately 15,000 people were employed in the craft at this time, of whom many were itinerant, but settling down to pass their skills to their sons. The charming “mille fleurs” scenes are characterized by backgrounds of small local flowers, reminiscent of the practice of strewing roadways with flowers on fête days.

Tapestries often changed hands after battle, and since the victor’s door and window openings might be a different size the acquired hangings might be cut down to size, or into pieces which were considered more serviceable, or even stitched together with other tapestries, if a larger piece was needed.

While no prices are quoted, the GM should be able to determine a valid ball-park amount according to the period of time allowed for the tapestry and its size, which will determine how many man-hours he will have to pay for in addition to the raw materials

In regards to clothes, all clothing weights will be subject to the modifiers for weight (and cost, based on STA & Build), as applicable. Upper class garments will all be lined with light weight fabric no better than fine linen for comfort, and seams reinforced to hold their shape better.

Common clothes as assumed to be of common cloth running 4-6d. per yard, the clothes of the wealthy are assumed to be of fine common cloth running upwards of 1s. a yard, while noble clothing is assumed to be of the finest grade of common cloth available and costing roughly 1s. 6d. to 2s. per yard.

As a rule of thumb for the GM, the highest grade of common cloth will triple the base price (commonly available common cloth), brocades will multiply the base price by 5, elaborate silk blends favored by the nobility and upper crust of common society will multiply the base price by 8, and heavy silks and velvets reserved for the upper echelons of noble society will multiply the base price by 10.

Color is another consideration that will have a direct effect on the price of clothing, as some pigments are very expensive and the secrets for brilliant, colorfast colors are closely guarded trade secrets.

The finest, rich forest green color will double the listed price of any garment, while a brilliant bloody red (dyed in grain) can quadruple the price.

Cloth that is a true black can run from as much as green to as high as red depending on the depth and density of the pigment, the most expensive being the truest, richest and most colorfast (March or Mars black, made from sulphate of iron and gall, 1500’s). These colors will normally only be worn by the wealthy and noble.

Players of characters from elfin lands should check with the GM for special base weights for their clothing, for elfin cloth may be finer and lighter (GM’s discretion). The common cloths of short-fibered yarns produced by the younger races, especially the more numerous humans, weigh about 1.5lb’s per square yard. Having been practicing the industry so much longer, it is likely the elfin kindreds will be producing fabrics more like the finer, lighter “new cloth” of the 15th-16th centuries, made of long-fibered yarns and weighing anywhere from 0.5 to 0.25lb’s per square yard. Players wanting to equip their non-elfin characters with clothes of the lighter elfin cloth will have to pay extra for it (see GM).

The elfin cloths are always in demand and the elfin kindreds will be far more successful in keeping the secrets of it in their own hands than the silk farmers in the Far East were at keeping the silk worms out of the hands of the Italian merchants, historically. Most of the fabric the elfs will offer for sale will go to royalty and the wealthy noble class first, who are best able to pay for it. In the absence of alot of competition for and interest in such cloth it will carry a price c. 30% higher than other types. Where there is interest from noble or royal factors or buyers the PC’s would do well to look elsewhere or, if there is enough for the offers of other buyers to be entertained, they may vie with these and pay anywhere from 60% more up to 10 times the (common price + 30%).

Special fur linings and trim, lace, embroideries of silk, silver, or gold, dagged (slashed) styles, appliqués of jewels, and the like are not included in the costs of any of the garments on the roster, nor among the clothing awarded to characters with which to begin play under the heading “Clothing & Gear Allowances” in Step 6. of (PC) Character Generation, only linen and woolen fabrics varying in quality according to class. If the player is interested in true court finery, special accessories, or fancy trimmings for character garb, he should see the GM, who has the specifics on fine materials and luxury accessories.

Before the PC engages a craftsman to produce finery for his character, he should be aware of the Sumptuary Laws that reserve the luxurious dress of the nobility as theirs alone, so that they can be identified on sight. This is considered important. The ability to distinguish social class, and even some trades is important in the medieval world, for it enables passersby to know one rank and render the appropriate courtesy.

Monks and clerics wear the customary cassock, its color and accoutrements identifying the specific order. The scholar of the universities and professional tutors and sages wear the black robes and biretta hat (the precursor of the gown and mortar board worn at graduations). Judges wear gown, tunic, and hood of red all lined in white, with a coif of black, when about the business of their office. Sergeants-at-Law wear parti-colored robes of green and brown or black and white, with the same black coif, when about the business of the law. Physicians wear robes of purple with scarlet gloves. Harlots wear dresses of scarlet, with striped hoods which must not be lined or trimmed in fine fashion. Even lepers had their customary garb, a coat of gray and a scarlet hat, but for more practical reasons of public health and safety. The character will automatically be equipped with any customary clothing worn by any trade(s) for which he may be trained that wear such garb.

The Sumptuary Laws restrict servants from wearing any suit of clothing worth more than roughly 8s., and from wearing silk, silver, or gold. But this alone isn’t enough. No laborer will be allowed to wear cloth valued at more than 8d. per yard, regardless of how well off he becomes. Common men, brewer’s men, and others in service must wear linen or wool, never velvet or silk. Serving girls may not wear jackets. They and the maids must not go to church in pearls or gold studs, and are allowed only black braid trimmings. They are roughly equal to “women of their own incomes” for the purposes of attire, to nannies, seamstresses, and other women in service or earning their living by their own hand. Multi-colored hose, caps, and coats, even simple parti-colored (of two colors) garments are considered excessive for the commonalty, though there are no legislated restrictions on them.

Furs are also restricted, even for simple clothing trim. The “vair and grey” (the mottled belly and gray back fur of the grey northern squirrel) is reserved specially for the ranks of knights. Sable is reserved for barons and great men of even higher rank, while ermine is solely for members of the royal family. The furs of the coney, hare or rabbit, the fox, marten, otter, and the fur called “budge” (prepared lambskin) are all yielded to the commoners. Many of the common white furs such as rabbit will be dyed as an alternative to a more costly and restricted fur, red a favorite though the most expensive color.

The player should not get too discouraged at these restrictions, however. Just because the laws restrict dress doesn’t mean that all obey, it simply means that the wealthy commoners who can afford it simply pay the fines for breaking the laws whenever some notable gets his nose out of joint over it enough to take them to court for it. Thus, the nobility ensure that only those who can really afford to do so will be able to ape them and dress as they do, as previously stated in the text on customary medieval garb in Part II. of this book.

Jewelry & Valuables
Clasp for a cloak, silver with pearls £0. 10s. 0d.
Girdle, silk, for a knight £0. 3s. 0d.
Girdle, silver & gold, lockets & links £13. 13s. 4d.
Girdle of gold with rubies & emeralds £37. 12s. 0d.
Hunting Horn & Knife set, gold fittings, green silk straps & tassels

£25. 17s. 4d. “Knots of gold” (Queen’s feast robe), ea. £0. 0s. 4d. “Knots of silver-gilt” (10) £0. 1s. 0d. Necklace, gold, 0.7 oz £0. 16s. 8d. Purse, leather set in silver £0. 7s. 7d. Gilded (silver) ring-brooch, large £1. 6s. 8d. Ring, gilded dross £0. 0s. 2d. Ring with seal of carven agate £0. 1s. 6d. Ring, gold (“some goodly …”), 0.75+ oz. £1. 0s. 0d. Ring, gold with a ruby, 0.75+ oz £1. 6s. 8d. Ring, gold with diamonds, 0.75+oz £7. 10s. 0d. Spoon, silver

(varying by size & weight) £0. 0s. 6d to

£0. 2s. 6d. String of Pearls £1. 3s. 4d. Veil, tissue of gold with rubies & emeralds, richly worked (embroidered in silk)

£14. 0s. 0d.

Domestic Items

& Furnishings  54Aumbry (hutch to display tablewares) £0. 1s. 4d. Banker (cushion/stuffed bench cover) £0. 1s. 3d. Basin & Ewer (pitcher & basin) £0. 1s. 0d. to

£0. 3s. 3d. Basin £0. 2s. 8d. Bed, Feather-, with bolster £0. 3s. 4d. to

£0. 6s. 8d. Bed, new (High) £1. 0s. 0d. Bellows “for the kitchen” £0. 0s. 5d. Butter churn £0. 0s. 7d.10Candle, tallow1£0. 0s. 1d. 1hp.10Candle, beeswax, cotton wick1£0. 0s. 6d.10Candle, Clock-1.5£0. 0s. 9d. Candle sticks, turned wood, pair £0. 0s. 3d. Candlestick, wood, 12-socket £0. 0s. 10d. Carpet (bearing arms of the realm) £1. 0s. 0d. Cauldron, bronze, 40 gal. capacity150£2. 17s. 2d. Cheese press £0. 0s. 4d. 1fg. Cleaver (“fleshaxe”) £0. 1s. 3d. Counterpane (for a bed) £0. 4s. 0d. Coverlet, red (bedspread) £0. 2s. 0d. Cup, common earthenware/pottery or wood £0. 0s. 0d. 1fg. to

£0. 0s. 0d. 1hp. Cresset (torch holder) “for the Chamber” £0. 0s. 5d. Cushion £0. 0s. 9d. Dairy Form (cheese or butter) £0. 0s. 3d. Dairy Sieve £0. 0s. 2d. Dairy Stamp (cheese or butter) £0. 0s. 3d. Dishes, common earthenware/pottery or wood, per dozen

£0. 0s. 1d. Dresser “with penthouse” £0. 1s. 6d. Fireplace bellows £0. 0s. 3d. Fork, large iron (kitchen) £0. 0s. 3d. 1hp. Glass, Drinking- £0. 0s. 8d. Glass, Drinking-, with stand of silver £0. 7s. 0d. Hearth Stake (poker) £0. 0s. 4d. Jug, brazen (bronze) 4.5 gal. capacity £0. 6s. 8d. Jack (drinking mug), cuerbully1£0. 0s. 1d. Knives, assorted for the kitchen, ea. £0. 0s. 3d. to

£0. 0s. 7d. Knife, “Dresser -” (carving knife) £0. 0s. 8d. Knife, “Great -” (kitchen) £0. 1s. 3d. 1hp. Lamp, Oil-, glass with chain to hang £0. 0s. 3d. Looking Glass (ivory)4” diam.1£0. 3s. 1d. 1fg. Looking Glass (silvered)4” x 6”1£0. 2s. 0d. Mirror, common metal9” x 14”2.5£0. 0s. 7d.  5” x 7”0.75£0. 0s. 2d. Maser (fine wood drinking cup)0.5£0. 3s. 4d. to 10s. Mortar & Pestle, wood £0. 0s. 5d. Mortar, stone £0. 3s. 4d. Napkins, ea. 3d. to 11d. Pan, milk-, earthenware (for cheese) £0. 0s. 0d. 1hp. Pitcher, Water- or Wine-, common £0. 0s. 0d. 1hp. Plates, common earthenware/pottery or wood, ea.

£0. 0s. 0d. 1hp. Plates, pewter, ea. £0. 0s. 3d. Pot, bronze,”Posnet”, per gal. capacity3.75£0. 1s. 5d. 1fg. “Patella” (brass dish)1 gallon1.5£0. 0s. 4d.  2 gallon2£0. 0s. 5d.  3 gallon2.25£0. 0s. 6d. “Patella”, iron skillet £0. 0s. 5d. Quern (handmill for grinding grain)10£0. 2s. 0d. Quern, for grinding peppercorns2£0. 0s. 7d. Quilt & Mattress (High) £1. 13s. 4d. Quilt & Mattress of baudekin cloth over fustian with a coverlet of gray fur lined with scarlet

£20. + Razor £0. 0s. 6d.10Rushlights, tallow0.25£0. 0s. 2d. Soap, tallow1£0. 0s. 1d. 1hp. Sheet, linen, for a bed (“lintheamina”) £0. 4s. 0d. Sheet, “old” £0. 0s. 5d. Skimmer £0. 1s. 0d. Spit (for roasting) £0. 2s. 6d. Spoon, iron, Chandler’s £0. 1s. 1d. Table (dormant), for a (Great) Hall £0. 13s. 4d. Tablecloth, 14.5 ells £0. 15s. 0d. Tankard, 2-qt. (77.5 0z.), iron-bound £0. 1s. 2d. Tomb monument, incised brass on marble base (wealthy commoner or lesser noble)

£8. 0s. 0d. Tomb effigy, sculptural, atop a gilded tomb, high noble

£300. 0s. 0d.10Torches (6)9£0. 0s. 1d. 1hp. Trestles (2), and a plank (for a table) £0. 0s. 4d. Urinal £0. 0s. 1d.

Notes on Domestic Items & Furnishings

54) an Aumbry is a cabinet or hutch, like a modern buffet but with a rack of shelves above on which the lord displays his good (silver) plate, his wealth, and in which is stored his common serving ware for the Great Hall. The number of shelves allowed on the aumbry is fixed by custom, starting with only 2 for a simple baron, 4 for an earl, 6 for a marquess, 7 for duke, and 8 for a king. The length of the aumbry might be extended to accommodate more plate for a particularly wealthy member of a given station, or the lord might have more than one such hutch.

55) The cuerbully jack is a common drinking mug made of leather, the same as cuerbully armor. It is generally worn hanging from a leather thong from the owner’s belt or girdle when not in use, on occasions when the owner will be away from home long enough that he may wish to refresh himself while out.

Henchmen, Hirelings,

Retainers &

Labor Services

At one point or another, the PC’s are going to need to get some work of some kind done, for which they are perhaps not skilled to do themselves, or not skilled enough to perform the work to their own satisfaction, or not properly equipped to tackle, or for which they may simply not have the time to assay themselves. It may be that the PC’s have or have acquired the wherewithal to hire some domestic staff to take care of their needs, even from the very beginning of the game. The financial needs and expectations for remuneration of all such henchmen, hirelings and laborers will need to be met, and for this the GM will have to have some reference to inform him of the magnitude of that payment, and for services at least an idea of the rates that should be charged for various and diverse sorts of work.

The GM should keep in mind that those who are retained in the household on wages are NOT paid by the job according to the rates quoted under “Miscellaneous Services”

Daily Wages (daily) (yearly)
Affrarius (keeper of workhorses) 4s.
Arundinator † (thatcher of reeds)

& his man6d. 1Baker (Framlingham) 3s. BailiffAldington; Leatherhead 10s.  Cheddington 13s. 4d.  Kingsnod £1.  Ersham, + £1. in robe money £3. 18s.  Framlingham £5. 17s.  Langley6d.£9. 2s. 6d.2Barrowman2d. 1hp. 1Bedell (Framlingham) 5s.2Carpenter, “Master”4d. 1hp.  Carter & his boy4d. 1hp.4s. to 5s. Cart & 2 horses’ service10d.  Cart & 3 horses’ service1s. 2d.  Champion, household retainer 6s. 8d. “Children’s Work” (day-labor, farm)1d.  Claviger (macebearer) 3s. Clerk in Charge of the (King’s) Children’s Household

(+ £1. 10s. 8d. in robe money)

4d. 1hp.  Collector of Tithes 2s. 7d.1Cook (Framlingham) 1s. 6d. Cook 2s. to 5s. 2d. Cooper3d. 1Cowherd (Framlingham) 3s. Cowherd 1s. 6d. to 3s.2Dauber3d. 1hp. 2Delver (digger)2d. 1hp. 1Deye (dairymaid, Framlingham) 2s. Deye (Summer/Winter) 3s./1s. Domestic Officers, noble households

(Cook, Pantler, Usher, Tailor, etc.)

(+ 9s. yearly in robe money)


2d. 1Drover (Framlingham)


4s./1s. 3d. Falconer1s. 1Forester (Framlingham) £2. 3s. 4d.1Gardener (Framlingham) 4s. 2d. Gardener, Vinedresser 13s. 4d. Groom (stables or kennels, the same)1d. 1hp.  Guardian of the King’s Children

(+ £2. 5s. 6d. in robe money)

£30. Guide, link-boy (lantern-bearer)1d.  Headborough (Reeve of Banstead) 4s. Huntsman, “Master”2d.  Huntsman’s Man1d. 1hp.  Kitchen servants 2s1Maid (Framlingham) 1s. 6d.2Mason“Master”4d. 1hp. 2 Freestone Cutter4d. 2 Junior Mason Polisher3d. 2 Mason’s Apprentice2d.  Master of Boats4d. 1Miller 3s. 4d. Minstrel, of the king’s household7d. 1hp. 3Painter3d. 2Pargetter3d. 2- assistant/boy2d.  ParkerAldington £1. 10s. 4d.  Ersham £2. 5s. 6d.  Langley3d.£4. 11s. 3d.2Pavior3d. 3fg.  Pigherd 2s.2Plasterer5d. 2- assistant/boy1d.  Ploughman 2s. to 7s.2Plumber3d. 2- assistant/boy1d. 1fg.  Priest, Chantry £4. 13s. 4d.2Roofer (laying shingles)4d.  Sailor3d.  Sewers of the Queen’s Tailor’s Office4d. 1fg.  Shepherd 1s. 4d. to 5s.2Slater4d. 1hp. 2Slater’s man (assistant)2d. 4Smith 8s. Stipend to a sick man

(Carpenter’s Guild) £3. 0s. 8d.2Thatcher (in gorse, sedge, stubble)2d. 1hp. 2Tiler/Bricklayer4d. 1hp. 2“Torcher”3d. 1hp. 5Varlets, household1s. 4d.  Vicar £4. 10s. Wardens of London Bridges £10. Water Carrier (@ Roman Bath)2d. or 3d.  Weaver5d. 2Whitewasher3d. 1hp. 2Whitewasher’s boy1d. 3fg.  Wages of War(daily)(yearly) Archer (footman)2d.  Archer, royal service3d.  Archer, mounted; Hobilars;


6d.  Barons (in the field)4s.  Crossbowman4d. 3fg.  Dukes13s. 4d.  Earls (in the field)6s. 8d.  Knight (bachelor)2s.  Knight (banneret)4s.  Soldier, Common Levy2d.  Soldier, man-at-arms, -horse1s.  Soldier, professional mercenary2s.  Squires, Sergeants, Centenaries,


1s.  Welsh spearmen2d.  Welsh Vintenaires4d.  (Labor &) Miscellaneous Services  BathSteam2d.  Tub (inclusive)4d.  water-carriers’ fee alone2d. or 3d. Capture crows & magpies1hp. ea. Chandler making up candles1d. per 3 lb’s-worth6Chandler making white wax up as red8d. per lb’s-worth Church Services“Churchings” (for a new mother, 40 days after giving birth)


1s. to 1s. 10d.  Wedding2s. to 5s. 3d.  Burial(rule of thumb, = to the deceased’s yearly income)  Burial (commoners)3fg. to 9s. 3d. Coroner of the Shire, fee to appear3s. 4d. Coroner’s Inquest Witness, fee1s. Ferry across a river,1 horseman1d.  1 man on foot1hp. Gelding a Pig1fg. Gold/SilverSmith, labor in making a gilded silver plate of 17 penny-weight

2s. 10d. “Housing and lights for the gyrfalcons”2d. per day Housing alone for the gyrfalcons1d. per day Inn Charges   A bed1fg. per night for 2 OR

1 fg. for 2 nights for 1

up to

1d. per head per night (London)  eggs or vegetables, a capon or chicken, ea.

1fg. per person  fat, gravy, or pickle, ea.1hp. per person  spices, sugar, pepper, saffron, or mustard, ea.

4d. per person Minstrels, 1 evening (for a bishop), ea.1d. Minstrels 1 evening (for a bishop), ea.1s. Minstrel company (4),

one day’s service to the king (Ed. II)

20 ells of cloth Mole Catcher“old moles”2s. per 100  “young moles”1s. 3d. per 1007Monastery School£1. per year8Paving (streets), per “toise”£0. 0s. 3d. 1hp.9Raising a Watermill, carpenter’s labor£3. 13s. 4d. Raising a Windmill, carpenter’s labor£3. 1s. 5d. Rat Catcher1fg. each10Rubrication3fg. per page11Scribe’s Fee for composing the yearly account for an estate6s. 8d.12Scribing the account, per octavo (page)1d. 3fg. to 2d.13Scribing a Bible£4. 7s. Smith, labor in working brass1hp. per lb. Tailormake up 1 robe1s.  make up 2 pr. adult gaskins + 7 pr. for boys

4d.  make up a robe with 5 garnishments & turn 1 pr. of sleeves


2s. 10d.  shear 1 bolt of woolen cloth1s. Tannertan & bleach 1 cow skin10d.  tan 1 horse hide7d. 1hp.  tan 1 sow skin3d.  dress (taw) 1 fox pelt1hp.  dress (taw) 1 horse hide10d.14Training (king’s) gerfalcon to the hunt£3. 6s. 8d. Education                                                     Monastary Schoolc. £2. per year7Universityminimum (commoner)£1. 6s. 8d. to

£3. 0s. 0d. per year  wealthy or noble£4. to £10. per year [Wain-] wright, for fitting 2 axels to a chariot1s. Weapon instruction (general)4s. per month Weapon instruction (fencing, gentle blood or better)7s. 6d. per month


Notes on Henchmen, Hirelings,

Retainers & Labor Services

1) The yearly wage quoted does not include the value of the 8 bushels of corn (grain, wheat) given every 8 to 12 weeks

Bailiffs every 8 weeks

ploughmen every 9 weeks

shepherds every 10 weeks

cowherds every 12 weeks

For the forester and parker, the apparently low wage does NOT include their (valuable) annual allowances of venison

2) Indicates that the rate paid to all those trades so marked will vary with the time of year. The working day of those who labor generally outdoors, especially in the building industry, is directly influenced by the light available, according to the time of year. “Nightwork”, as working by candlelight is commonly referred to, is generally forbidden as a rule, as it leads to shoddy workmanship, to the grievous harm of the people.

The rates quoted on the “Daily Wages” roster will only actually apply as noted during the Spring and Fall seasons when the days and nights are of average length. In the short days of winter (only 8-hours of daylight by Mid-Winter), the rate paid will be reduced by 1d. per day, while during the long days of summer (reaching 16-hours of daylight at Mid-Summer) the rate paid will be increased by 1d. per day. The points in time on the medieval calendar at which the changes in rate will take effect was historically matched to the calendar of religious festivals, as follows.

Season From To
Spring Candlemas Easter
Summer Easter Michaelmas
Fall Michaelmas Feast of St. Martin
Winter Feast of St. Martin Candlemas

For the GM’s convenience, a number of suggestions for avoiding getting this closely tied to the historical European Catholic Church and the Real World are included with the definitions of the timing of these festivals under the heading “Time in the Medieval World” in Chapter 3. of Part III. of this book. The time of year is not the only variable in rate of pay, however.

IF the patron or employer wishes, he might extend the hospitality of his table to the workmen he employs. This is deemed to be worth 1d. 1hp. in wages per day, to be subtracted from the rate paid, regardless of whether it is Spring/Fall from the roster, or adjusted for Winter or Summer.

In the case of assistants to whitewashers, daubers and torchers, and for delvers (diggers) and barrowmen, meals at table will only be valued at 1d. in wages (lesser fare offered).

The workman may demure this offer in favor of the coin, but should be careful when the patron is a man of great rank or station, as it may be taken amiss – better to accept the offer for himself and deny the need for his laborers, whose presence will not be missed, or confer with them to see if all should join him at the patron’s table.

3) the difference between the rate here for labor and the entry under “Embellishments previously lies in the fact that the labor rate assumes that all materials are being provided by the patron, and that the prior entry indicates that the craftsman is supplying all materials.

4) Each smith in the rural areas will take care of all trade calling on his services for an area of 3 to 4 villages surrounding, and is most likely to be found in a village where a manor located.

5) Varlets are household men, anonymous domestics who have no specific assigned position or duties, they are taken into the household as a part of the practices of bastard feudalism to provide private warbands.

6) This rate indicates the Chandler is supplying the pigment for the wax.

7) These rates are for tuition only and do not include books, room and board, clothing, entertainment or sundries.

8) A “toise” or “taice” is an area 7.5ft. by 1ft., laid so that the rows of pavers lie perpendicular to the line described by the road. This rate is for the materials. On a market or other town square, the householders lining the area are responsible for paving up to a distance of 30 ft. in the width of their frontage, or exactly 4 toise deep x the width of the frontage of the property in feet. In paved streets, the householders will be responsible for paving out to the center of the street for the entire frontage of the property. It is always more economically advantageous in this regard to own a piece of property that runs perpendicular to the street.

9) At the previously noted wages for the trade, this amounts to 195.5 days work, not counting the 27 Sundays. If he started the day after Easter this year he would have finished at the end of the first week of November, 8 months

10) Rubricating is the practice of pointing or coloring in the headings and elaborate initials in a manuscript, usually in a single contrasting color, most commonly red.

11) The scribe’s fee for composing is for just that, for acting as accountant in gathering the figures, doing the math, and putting all the figures in order.

12) the number of pages needed to scribe the account for the estate from which the quote was taken was 13. The GM can use this as a basis for similar annual expenses for all lordship or manor estates, perhaps using a range of 10 to 20 pages, depending on the extent of the estate.

13) At the rate quoted for scribing a single page, the Bible would have contained some 597 pages.

14) This fee does not include the expenses in lights and housing or feed for the bird, only the Falconer’s efforts in training the bird.

In the case of household staff, although a daily rate may be quoted, the payment will most commonly only be collected twice each year, usually at Easter and Mid-Winter (Christmas), and this includes those on the estates, such as carters. In addition, the wages quoted for household staff do NOT include the customary shoe-money, or robe AND shoe-money that came with their positions (as noted for the Bailiff of Ersham and “Domestic Officers”, above), for their appearance is a direct reflection on their employer, and it would not do for the staff to get sick from exposure due to worn and insufficient clothing, for then the cost of a healer of some sort would have to be borne by the employer.