Armor and Shields

Padded Torso & Overall Body Armors

Garment Armor Type Wt. Cost
1 Aketon/Coat padded (1) 10 £0. 4s. 2d.
padded (2) 14.5 £0. 5s. 3d.
padded (3) 19.75 £0. 6s. 7d.
padded (4) 25 £0. 7s. 9d.
1 Aketon/Coat Studded (1) 11.75 £0. 5s. 1d.
Studded (2) 16.25 £0. 6s. 4d.
Studded (3) 21.5 £0. 7s. 6d.
Studded (4) 26.25 £0. 8s. 8d.
1 Aketon/Coat Trellised (1) 15.25 £0. 5s. 11d.
Trellised (2) 20.5 £0. 7s. 0d.
Trellised (3) 25.75 £0. 8s. 2d.
Trellised (4) 30.25 £0. 9s. 4d.
1 Aketon/Coat Bezainted (1) 14 £0. 6s. 6d.
Bezainted (2) 18.75 £0. 7s. 9d.
Bezainted (3) 24 £0. 8s. 11d.
Bezainted (4) 29.25 £0. 10s. 1d.
1 Aketon/Coat Ringed (1) 15.25 £0. 7s. 1d.
Ringed (2) 19.75 £0. 8s. 3d.
Ringed (3) 25 £0. 9s. 6d.
Ringed (4) 29.75 £0. 10s. 8d.
2 Arming Cap padded (1) 0.25 £0. 0s. 1d. 1hp.
padded (2) 0.5 £0. 0s. 2d.
3 Coif/Hood padded (1) 1 £0. 0s. 4d.
padded (2) 1.5 £0. 0s. 5d. 1hp.
padded (3) 2.25 £0. 0s. 6d. 3fg.
padded (4) 2.75 £0. 0s. 7d. 3fg.
3 Coif/Hood Studded (1) 1.25 £0. 0s. 5d.
Studded (2) 1.75 £0. 0s. 6d. 1hp.
Studded (3) 2.5 £0. 0s. 7d. 1hp.
Studded (4) 3 £0. 0s. 8d. 3fg.
3 Coif/Hood Trellised (1) 1.75 £0. 0s. 6d.
Trellised (2) 2.25 £0. 0s. 7d. 1fg.
Trellised (3) 2.75 £0. 0s. 8d. 1hp.
Trellised (4) 3.25 £0. 0s. 9d. 3fg.
3 Coif/Hood Bezainted (1) 1.5 £0. 0s. 6d. 1hp.
Bezainted (2) 2 £0. 0s. 7d. 3fg.
Bezainted (3) 2.75 £0. 0s. 9d.
Bezainted (4) 3.25 £0. 0s. 10d. 1fg
3 Coif/Hood Ringed (1) 1.75 £0. 0s. 7d.
Ringed (2) 2.25 £0. 0s. 8d. 1fg.
Ringed (3) 2.75 £0. 0s. 9d. 1hp.
Ringed (4) 3.25 £0. 0s. 10d. 3fg.
4 Gambeson padded (1) 4.25 £0. 2s. 5d.
padded (2) 6.25 £0. 3s. 4d.
padded (3) 8.5 £0. 4s. 1d.
padded (4) 10.75 £0. 4s. 9d.
4 Gambeson Studded (1) 5 £0. 3s. 2d.
Studded (2) 7 £0. 3s. 11d.
Studded (3) 9.25 £0. 4s. 8d.
Studded (4) 11.25 £0. 5s. 4d.
4 Gambeson Trellised (1) 6.5 £0. 3s. 7d.
Trellised (2) 8.75 £0. 4s. 4d.
Trellised (3) 11 £0. 5s. 0d.
Trellised (4) 13 £0. 5s. 9d.
4 Gambeson Bezainted (1) 6 £0. 4s. 0d.
Bezainted (2) 8 £0. 4s. 11d.
Bezainted (3) 10.5 £0. 5s. 6d.
Bezainted (4) 12.5 £0. 6s. 3d.
4 Gambeson Ringed (1) 6.5 £0. 4s. 5d.
Ringed (2) 8.5 £0. 5s. 1d.
Ringed (3) 10.75 £0. 5s. 10d.
Ringed (4) 12.75 £0. 6s. 6d.
5 Jack/Jerkin padded (1) 2.75 £0. 1s. 7d.
padded (2) 4 £0. 2s. 1d.
padded (3) 5.25 £0. 2s. 6d.
padded (4) 6.75 £0. 3s. 0d.
5 Jack/Jerkin Studded (1) 3 £0. 2s. 0d.
Studded (2) 4.25 £0. 2s. 5d.
Studded (3) 5.5 £0. 2s. 10d.
Studded (4) 7 £0. 3s. 4d.
5 Jack/Jerkin Trellised (1) 4 £0. 2s. 3d.
Trellised (2) 5.5 £0. 2s. 8d.
Trellised (3) 6.75 £0. 3s. 2d.
Trellised (4) 8 £0. 3s. 7d.
5 Jack/Jerkin Bezainted (1) 3.75 £0. 2s. 6d.
Bezainted (2) 5 £0. 2s. 11d.
Bezainted (3) 6.5 £0. 3s. 5d.
Bezainted (4) 7.75 £0. 3s. 10d.
5 Jack/Jerkin Ringed (1) 4 £0. 2s. 9d.
Ringed (2) 5.25 £0. 3s. 3d.
Ringed (3) 6.75 £0. 3s. 8d.
Ringed (4) 8 £0. 4s. 1d.
6 Mantle padded (1) 3.5 £0. 2s. 0d.
padded (2) 5.25 £0. 2s. 8d. 1hp.
padded (3) 6.75 £0. 3s. 3d.
padded (4) 8.75 £0. 3s. 10d. 3fg.
6 Mantle Studded (1) 4 £0. 2s. 8d. 1hp.
Studded (2) 5.5 £0. 3s. 3d.
Studded (3) 7.25 £0. 3s. 9d. 3fg.
Studded (4) 9.25 £0. 4s. 5d. 1hp.
6 Mantle Trellised (1) 5.25 £0. 3s. 1d.1fg.
Trellised (2) 7.25 £0. 3s. 8d.
Trellised (3) 8.75 £0. 4s. 4d. 3fg
Trellised (4) 10.5 £0. 4s. 10d. 1fg.
6 Mantle Bezainted (1) 5 £0. 3s. 6d. 1hp.
Bezainted (2) 6.5 £0. 4s. 1d.
Bezainted (3) 8.5 £0. 4s. 8d. 3fg.
Bezainted (4) 10 £0. 5s. 3d. 1fg.
6 Mantle Ringed (1) 5.25 £0. 3s. 11d.
Ringed (2) 6.75 £0. 4s. 6d.1hp.
Ringed (3) 8.5 £0. 5s. 1d. 1fg.
Ringed (4) 10.5 £0. 5s. 8d.

Arm Armors, Padded

Garment Armor Type Wt. Cost
7 Sleeve padded (1) .75 £0. 0s. 5d. 1fg.
padded (2) 1.25 £0. 0s. 7d. 1hp.
padded (3) 1.5 £0. 0s. 9d.
padded (4) 2 £0. 0s. 10d. 3fg.
7 Sleeve Studded (1) 1 £0. 0s. 8d. 1hp.
Studded (2) 1.25 £0. 0s. 10d.
Studded (3) 1.75 £0. 0s. 11d. 3fg.
Studded (4) 2.25 £0. 1s. 1d. 1hp.
7 Sleeve Trellised (1) 1.25 £0. 0s. 10d. 1fg.
Trellised (2) 1.75 £0. 1s. 0d.
Trellised (3) 2 £0. 1s. 1d. 3fg.
Trellised (4) 2.5 £0. 1s. 3d. 1fg.
7 Sleeve Bezainted (1) 1.25 £0. 1s. 0d. 1hp.
Bezainted (2) 1.5 £0. 1s. 2d.
Bezainted (3) 2 £0. 1s. 3d. 3fg.
Bezainted (4) 2.25 £0. 1s. 5d. 1fg.
7 Sleeve Ringed (1) 1.25 £0. 1s. 2d.
Ringed (2) 1.5 £0. 1s. 3d. 1hp.
Ringed (3) 2 £0. 1s. 5d. 1fg.
Ringed (4) 2.5 £0. 1s. 7d.
7 Sleeve, ea. Singlemail Strong (steel) 2.25 £0. 1s. 5d.
Proof 2.75 £0. 1s. 9d. 1fg.
Double Proof 3.25 £0. 2s. 1d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 3.75 £0. 2s. 5d. 3fg.
7 Sleeve, ea. Banded Singlemail  

Strong (steel)

 

2.75

 

£0. 1s. 6d. 1fg.

Proof 3.25 £0. 1s. 10d. 1hp.
Double Proof 3.75 £0. 2s. 2d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 4.25 £0. 2s. 7d.
7 Sleeve, ea. Doublemail Strong (steel) 4.5 £0. 2s. 11d.
Proof 5.5 £0. 3s. 6d. 1hp.
Double Proof 6.5 £0. 4s. 2d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 7.5 £0. 4s. 10d. 1fg.
7 Sleeve, ea. Banded Doublmail  

Strong (steel)

 

5.5

 

£0. 3s. 0d. 1fg.

Leg Armors, Padded

Garment Armor Type Wt. Cost
8 Gaskins padded (1) 5.75 £0. 3s. 6d.
padded (2) 8.25 £0. 4s. 5d
padded (3) 11.25 £0.5s. 5d.
padded (4) 14.25 £0. 6s. 5d.
8 Gaskins Studded (1) 6.75 £0. 4s. 2d.
Studded (2) 9.25 £0. 5s. 2d.
Studded (3) 12.25 £0. 6s. 2d.
Studded (4) 15 £0. 7s. 2d.
8 Gaskins Trellised (1) 8.75 £0. 4s. 9d.
Trellised (2) 11.75 £0. 5s. 9d.
Trellised (3) 14.75 £0. 6s. 9d.
Trellised (4) 17.75 £0. 7s. 8d.
8 Gaskins Bezainted (1) 8 £0. 5s. 4d.
Bezainted (2) 10.75 £0. 6s. 4d.
Bezainted (3) 13.75 £0. 7s. 4d.
Bezainted (4) 16.75 £0. 8s. 3d.
8 Gaskins Ringed (1) 8.75 £0. 5s. 10d.
Ringed (2) 11.25 £0. 6s. 10d.
Ringed (3) 14.25 £0. 7s. 9d.
Ringed (4) 17 £0. 8s. 9d.

 

Metal & Rigid Torso & Overall Body Armors

Garment Armor Type Wt. Cost
9 Byrnie Singlemail Strong (steel) 14.5 £0. 9s. 4d. 1hp.
    Proof 18.25 £0. 11s. 9d. 1hp.
    Double Proof 21.75 £0. 14s. 0d. 1hp.
    Triple Proof 25.5 £0. 16s 5d. 1hp.
9 Byrnie Banded Singlemail  

Strong (steel)

 

16.5

 

£0. 10s. 0d.

    Proof 20.25 £0. 12s. 5d.
    Double Proof 23.75 £0. 14s. 8d.
    Triple Proof 27.5 £0. 17s. 1d.
9 Byrnie Doublemail Strong (steel) 29 £0. 18s. 8d. 3fg.
    Proof 36.25 £1. 3s. 5d.
    Double Proof 43.5 £1. 8s. 1d. 1fg.
    Triple Proof 50.75 £1. 12s. 9d. 1hp.
9 Byrnie Banded Doublemail Strong (steel) 31 17s. 6d. 1fg.
    Proof 38.25 £1. 4s. 0d. 1hp.
    Double Proof 45.5 £1. 8s. 8d. 3fg.
    Triple Proof 52.75 £1. 13s. 5d.
1 Coat Jazeraint Cuerbully (C) 31.5 £1. 1s. 10d. 1hp.
Strong (steel) 37.25 £1. 6s. 10d.
Proof 43.75 £1. 10s. 11d.
Double Proof 49.5 £1. 14s. 8d.
Triple Proof 56 £1. 18s. 9d. 1hp.
1 Coat Brigandine Strong (steel) 40 £1. 9s. 5d. 1hp.
Proof 46 £1. 13s. 6d. 1hp.
Double Proof 52 £1. 17s. 3d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 58.25 £2. 1s. 4d. 1hp.
10 Doublet Jazeraint Cuerbully (C) 13.5 £0. 9s. 4d. 1hp.
Strong (steel) 16 £0. 11s. 6d.
Proof 18.75 £0. 13s. 3d.
Double Proof 21.25 £0. 14s. 10d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 24 16s. 7d. 1fg.
10 Doublet Laminated Strong (steel) 17.5 £0. 11s. 9d. 1fg.
Proof 21.75 £0. 14s. 6d. 1hp.
Double Proof 26.5 £0. 17s. 4d.
Triple Proof 30.5 £1. 0s. 1d. 1fg.
10 Doublet Brigandine Strong (steel) 17 £0. 12s. 7d. 1hp.
Proof 19.75 £0. 14s. 4d. 1hp.
Double Proof 22.25 £0.15s. 11d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 25 £0. 17s. 8d. 3fg.
11 Habergeon Singlemail Strong (steel) 8.75 £0. 5s. 7d. 3fg.
Proof 11 £0. 7s. 1d. 1fg.
Double Proof 13 £0. 8s. 4d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 15.25 £0. 9s. 10d. 1fg.
11 Habergeon Banded Singlemail Strong (steel) 9.75 £0. 5s. 11d. 3fg.
Proof 12 £0. 7s. 5d. 1fg.
Double Proof 14 £0. 8s. 8d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 16.25 £0. 10s. 2d. 1fg.
11 Habergeon Doublemail Strong (steel) 17.5 £0. 11s. 3d. 1hp.
Proof 22 £0. 14s. 2d. 1hp.
Double Proof 26 £0. 16s. 9d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 30.5 £0. 19s. 8d. 1hp.
11 Habergeon Banded Doublemail Strong (steel) 18.5 £0. 11s. 7d. 1hp.
Proof 23 £0. 14s. 6d. 1hp.
Double Proof 27 £0. 17s. 1d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 31.5 £1. 0s. 0d. 1hp.
12 Hauberk Singlemail Strong (steel) 23.25 £0. 14s. 11d. 3fg.
Proof 29 £0. 18s. 8d. 1hp.
Double Proof 35 £1. 2s. 5d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 40.75 £1. 6s. 1d. 1hp.
12 Hauberk Banded Singlemail Strong (steel) 28 £0. 16s. 2d. 1hp.
Proof 33.75 £0. 19s. 11d. 1hp.
Double Proof 39.5 £1. 3s. 8d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 45.5 £1. 7s. 3d.
12 Hauberk Doublemail Strong (steel) 46.5 £1. 9s. 10d. 3fg.
Proof 58.25 £1.17s. 2d. 1hp.
Double Proof 70 £2. 4s. 10d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 81.5 £2. 12s. 4d.
12 Hauberk Banded Doublemail Strong (steel) 56 £1. 11s. 1d. 1fg.
Proof 67.5 £1. 18s. 7d. 3fg.
Double Proof 79.25 £2. 6s. 1d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 90.75 £2.13s. 7d.
5 Jack Singlemail Strong (steel) 6.25 £0. 4s. 0d.
Proof 7.75 £0. 4s. 11d. 3fg.
Double Proof 9.25 £0. 5s. 11d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 11 £0. 6s. 11d. 3fg.
5 Jack Banded Singlemail Strong (steel) 7.5 £0. 4s. 3d.
Proof 9 £0. 5s. 2d. 3fg
Double Proof 10.5 £0. 6s. 2d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 12 £0. 7s.2d. 3fg.
5 Jack Doublemail Strong (steel) 12.5 £0. 7s. 11d. 3fg.
Proof 15.5 £0. 9s. 11d. 3fg.
Double Proof 18.75 £0. 11s. 10d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 21.75 £0. 13s. 11d. 3fg.
5 Jack Banded Doublemail Strong (steel) 13.75 £0. 8s. 2d. 3fg.
Proof 16.75 £0. 10s. 2d. 3fg.
Double Proof 20 £0. 12s. 1d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 23 £0. 14s. 2d. 1hp.
5 Jack Jazeraint Cuerbully (C) 8.5 £0. 5s. 10d.
Strong (steel) 10 £0. 7s. 1d. 3fg.
Proof 11.75 £0. 8s. 3d.
Double Proof 13.25 £0. 9s. 3d.
Triple Proof 15 £0. 10s. 4d.
5 Jack Laminated Strong (steel) 10.75 £0. 7s. 3d. 3fg.
Proof 15.5 £0. 9s. 0d. 1hp.
Double Proof 16.5 £0. 10s. 9d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 19 £0. 12s. 6d.
5 Jack Brigandine Strong (steel) 10.5 £0. 7s. 10d. 1fg.
Proof 12.25 £0. 8s. 11d. 1fg.
Double Proof 13.75 £0. 9s. 11d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 15.5 £0. 11s.0d. 1hp.
6 Mantle Singlemail Strong (steel) 8.5 £0. 5s. 5d.
Proof 10.5 £0. 6s. 7d.
Double Proof 12.5 £0. 8s. 1d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 14.75 £0. 8s. 5d. 1hp.
6 Mantle Banded Singlemail Strong (steel) 10.25 £0. 5s. 9d. 1fg.
Proof 12.25 £0. 7s. 1d. 1fg.
Double Proof 14.25 £0. 8s. 5d. 3hp.
    Triple Proof 16.25 £0. 9s. 9d. 3fg.
6 Mantle Doublemail Strong (steel) 17 £0. 10s. 10d. 3fg.
Proof 21 £0. 13s. 6d. 1fg.
Double Proof 25.25 £0. 16s. 1d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 29.25 £0. 18s. 10d.
6 Mantle Banded Doublemail Strong (steel) 5.5 £0. 3s. 0d. 1fg.
Proof 6.5 £0. 3s. 7d. 3fg.
Double Proof 7.5 £0. 4s. 3d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 8.5 £0. 4s. 11d. 1hp.
4 Shirt Singlemail Strong (steel) 10 £0. 6s. 5d.
Proof 12.5 £0. 8s. 0d. 1fg.
Double Proof 15 £0. 9s. 7d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 17.5 £0. 11s. 2d. 3fg.
4 Shirt Banded Singlemail Strong (steel) 12 £0. 6s. 11d. 1hp.
Proof 14.5 £0. 8s. 6d. 3fg.
Double Proof 17 £0. 10s. 2d.
Triple Proof 19.5 £0. 11s. 9d. 1fg.
4 Shirt Doublemail Strong (steel) 20 £0. 12s. 10d.
Proof 25 £0. 16s. 0d. 1hp.
Double Proof 30 £0. 19s. 3d.
Triple Proof 35 £1. 2s. 5d. 1hp.
4 Shirt Banded Doublemail Strong (steel) 24 £0. 13s. 8d. 1hp.
Proof 29 £0. 16s. 7d.
Double Proof 34 £0. 19s. 9d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 39 £1. 3s. 0d.

Plate Armors

Piece Armor Type Wt. Cost
13 Breastplate Cuerbully Common 2.75 £0. 2s. 4d.
3-ply 4 £0. 3s. 6d.
4-ply 5.5 £0. 4s. 10d.
13 Breastplate Field Plate Strong (steel) 6 £0. 3s. 10d. 3fg.
Proof 8.25 £0. 5s. 4d.
Double Proof 10.5 £0. 6s. 11d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 12.75 £0. 8s. 2d. 3fg.
13 Backplate Cuerbully Common 2.25 £0. 1s. 11d. 1fg.
3-ply 3.25 £0. 2s. 10d. 3fg.
4-ply 4.5 £0. 4s. 0d.
13 Backplate Field Plate Strong (steel) 5 £0. 3s. 2d. 3fg.
Proof 6.75 £0. 4s. 4d. 1hp.
Double Proof 8.5 £0. 5s. 6d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 10.25 £0. 6s. 7d. 1hp.
14 Cuirass Cuerbully Common 5.5 £0. 4s. 8d.
3-ply 8 £0. 7s. 0d.
4-ply 11 £0. 9s. 8d.
14 Cuirass Field Plate Strong (steel) 11 £0. 7s. 10d.
Proof 14.75 £0. 10s. 2d. 3fg.
Double Proof 18.25 £0. 10s. 5d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 22 £0. 14s. 8d. 1hp.
15 Fauld or Culet Cuerbully Common 1 £0. 0s. 10d. 1fg.
3-ply 1.25 £0. 1s. 0d. 3fg.
4-ply 1.75 £0. 1s. 5d. 3fg.
15 Fauld or Culet Field Plate Strong (steel) 2 £0. 1s. 3d. 1hp.
Proof 2.75 £0. 1s. 9d. 1fg.
Double Proof 4.25 £0. 2s. 9d.
Triple Proof 6 £0. 3s. 10d. 3fg.
16 Tasset, ea. Cuerbully Common 0.5 £0. 0s. 5d.
3-ply 1 £0. 0s. 10d. 1fg
4-ply 1.25 £0. 1s. 0d. 3fg.
16 Tasset, ea. Field Plate Strong (steel) 1.25 £0. 0s. 9d. 1hp.
Proof 1.75 £0. 1s. 0d. 3fg.
Double Proof 2.25 £0. 1s. 5d.
Triple Proof 3 £0. 1s. 10d. 3fg.
17 Tonlet Cuerbully Common 8.25 £0. 7s. 0d.
3-ply 12 £0. 10s. 6d.
4-ply 16.5 £0. 14s, 2d.
17 Tonlet Field Plate Strong (steel) 16.5 £0. 10s. 8d.
Proof 20.5 £0. 13s. 3d.
Double Proof 24.75 £0. 16s. 0d.
Triple Proof 28.75 £0. 18s. 6d.
18 White Armor Field Plate Strong (steel) 49.75 £1. 12s. 1d. 1fg.
(armet) Proof 63.25 £2. 0s. 10d. 1fg.
(full harness Double Proof 77.5 £2. 10s. 0d. 1hp.
for the joust) Triple Proof 92.5 £2. 19s. 8d. 3fg.

Metal Head/Neck Armors

Garment Armor Type Wt. Cost
19 Aventail Mascled Mail Strong (steel) 4.25 £0. 1s. 8d.
Proof 5.5 £0. 2s. 2d. 1fg.
Double Proof 6.5 £0. 2s. 7d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 7.75 £0. 3s. 0d. 1fg.
19 Aventail Singlemail Strong (steel) 1.75 £0. 1s. 2d.
Proof 2.25 £0. 1s. 5d. 1hp.
Double Proof 2.75 £0. 1s. 10d.
Triple Proof 3.25 £0. 2s. 3d. 1fg.
19 Aventail Banded Singlemail Strong (steel) 2 £0. 1s. 3d. 1fg.
Proof 2.75 £0. 1s. 7d.
Double Proof 3.25 £0. 1s. 11d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 4 £0. 2s. 5d. 1hp.
19 Aventail Doublemail Strong (steel) 3.5 £0. 2s. 4d.
Proof 4.5 £0. 2s. 11d.
Double Proof 5.5 £0. 3s. 8d.
Triple Proof 6.5 £0. 4s. 6d. 1hp.
19 Aventail Banded Doublemail Strong (steel) 4.25 £0. 2s. 6d.
Proof 5.5 £0. 3s. 1d. 3fg.
Double Proof 6.5 £0. 3s. 11d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 7.75 £0. 4s. 10d. 3fg.
2 Coif/Hood Singlemail Strong (steel) 2.75 £0. 1s. 9d.
Proof 3.5 £0. 2s. 2d. 1hp.
Double Proof 4 £0. 2s. 7d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 4.75 £0. 3s. 1d.
2 Coif/Hood Banded Singlemail Strong (steel) 3 £0. 1s. 10d. 1fg.
Proof 3.75 £0. 2s. 3d. 1hp.
Double Proof 4.25 £0. 2s. 8d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 5 £0. 3s. 1d.
2 Coif/Hood Doublemail Strong (steel) 5.5 £0. 3s. 6d. 1fg.
Proof 6.75 £0. 4s. 4d. 3fg.
Double Proof 8.25 £0. 5s. 3d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 9.5 £0. 6s. 2d.
2 Coif/Hood Banded Doublemail Strong (steel) 5.75 £0. 3s. 7d. 1hp.
Proof 7 £0. 4s. 5d. 3fg.
Double Proof 8.5 £0. 5s. 4d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 9.75 £0. 6s. 3d. 1fg.

Helms & Plate Neck Armor

Piece Armor Type Wt. Cost
20 Armet or Field Plate Strong (steel) 8 £0. 5s. 2d.
Close Helm Proof 10 £0. 6s. 5d. 1hp.
Double Proof 12 £0. 7s. 9d.
Triple Proof 14 £0. 9s. 0d. 1hp.
21 Barbute Field Plate Strong (steel) 5 £0. 3s. 2d. 3fg.
Proof 6.25 £0. 4s. 0d. 1hp.
Double Proof 8 £0. 5s. 0d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 9.75 £0. 6s. 3d. 3fg.
22 Basnet or Field Plate Strong (steel) 4 £0. 2s. 7d.
Bascinet Proof 5 £0. 3s. 2d.
Double Proof 6 £0. 3s. 10d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 7 £0. 4s. 6d. 1fg.
22 (with “hound- Field Plate Strong (steel) 6 £0. 3s. 10d. 1hp.
skull” visor) Proof 7.5 £0. 4s. 10d. 1fg.
Double Proof 9 £0. 6s. 0d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 10.5 £0. 6s. 9d. 1hp.
23 Great Helm Field Plate Strong (steel) 6 £0. 3s. 10d. 1hp.
Proof 7.5 £0. 4s. 10d. 1fg.
Double Proof 9 £0. 6s. 0d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 10.5 £0. 6s. 9d. 1hp.
24 Kettle Hat Field Plate Strong (steel) 5 £0. 3s. 2d. 3fg.
Proof 6.25 £0. 4s. 0d. 1hp.
Double Proof 8 £0. 5s. 0d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 9.75 £0. 6s. 3d. 3fg.
25 Morion Field Plate Strong (steel) 3.75 £0. 2s. 5d.
Proof 4.75 £0. 3s. 0d. 1fg.
Double Proof 5.75 £0. 3s. 9d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 7 £0. 4s. 8d. 3fg.
26 Nasal Helm Cuerbully (4) 2.5 £0. 2s. 1d. 1hp.
26 Nasal Helm Iron-bound 2.75 £0. 2s. 5d. 1fg.
26 Nasal Helm Field Plate Strong (steel) 3 £0. 1s. 11d. 1fg.
Proof 4 £0. 2s. 6d.
Double Proof 5 £0. 3s. 2d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 6 £0. 3s. 10d. 1hp.
27 Sallet Field Plate Strong (steel) 5.5 £0. 3s. 6d. 1hp.
Proof 6.25 £0. 4s. 0d. 1hp.
Double Proof 8.25 £0. 5s. 4d.
Triple Proof 10 £0. 6s. 5d. 1hp.
27 (with visor) Field Plate Strong (steel) 5.75 £0. 3s. 8d. 1hp.
Proof 6.5 £0. 4s. 2d. 1fg.
Double Proof 8.5 £0. 5s. 5d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 10.25 £0. 6s. 7d. 1hp.
28 Bevor Field Plate Strong (steel) 1.5 £0. 1s. 1d. 1hp.
Proof 2 £0. 1s. 3d. 1hp.
Double Proof 2.5 £0. 1s. 7d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 3 £0. 1s. 11d. 1fg.
29 Gorget Field Plate Strong (steel) 2.25 £0. 1s. 5d. 1hp.
Proof 3 £0. 2s. 0d.
Double Proof 3.75 £0. 2s. 5d.
Triple Proof 4.5 £0. 2s. 10d. 3fg.

Arm Armor, Metal & Rigid

Garment Armor Type Wt. Cost
5 Sleeve, ea. Singlemail Strong (steel) 2.25 £0. 1s. 5d.
Proof 2.75 £0. 1s. 9d. 1fg.
Double Proof 3.25 £0. 2s. 1d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 3.75 £0. 2s. 5d. 3fg.
5 Sleeve, ea. Banded Singlemail Strong (steel) 2.75 £0. 1s. 6d. 1fg.
Proof 3.25 £0. 1s. 10d. 1hp.
Double Proof 3.75 £0. 2s. 2d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 4.25 £0. 2s. 7d.
5 Sleeve, ea. Doublemail Strong (steel) 4.5 £0. 2s. 11d.
Proof 5.5 £0. 3s. 6d. 1hp.
Double Proof 6.5 £0. 4s. 2d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 7.5 £0. 4s. 10d. 1fg.
5 Sleeve, ea. Banded Doublmail Strong (steel) 5.5 £0. 3s. 0d. 1fg.
Proof 6.5 £0. 3s. 7d. 3fg.
Double Proof 7.5 £0. 4s. 3d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 8.5 £0. 4s. 11d. 1hp.
30 Pauldron, ea. Cuerbully Common 1.25 £0. 0s. 11d. 1hp.
3-ply 2 £0. 1s. 3d. 1fg.
4-ply 2.5 £0. 1s. 7d. hp.
30 Pauldron, ea. Field Plate Strong (steel) 2.75 £0. 1s. 9d.
Proof 3.5 £0. 2s. 3d. 1fg.
Double Proof 4.25 £0. 2s. 9d.
Triple Proof 5 £0. 3s. 2d. 3fg.
31 Spaudler, ea. Cuerbully Common 1 £0. 0s. 10d.
3-ply 1.5 £0. 1s. 3d.
4-ply 2 £0. 1s. 8d.
31 Spaudler, ea. Field Plate Strong (steel) 2.25 £0. 1s. 5d. 1hp.
Proof 3 £0. 2s. 0d.
Double Proof 3.75 £0. 2s. 5d.
Triple Proof 4.5 £0. 2s. 10d. 3fg.
32 Rerebrace, ea. Brigandine Strong (steel) 1.25 £0. 0s. 4d. 3fg.
Proof 1.5 £0. 0s. 7d.
Double Proof 1.75 £0. 0s. 9d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 2.25 £0. 1s. 0d. 1fg.
32 Rerebrace, ea. Cuerbully Common 0.5 £0. 0s. 5d.
3-ply 1 £0. 0s. 10d. 1fg.
4-ply 1.5 £0. 1s. 3d. 1fg.
32 Rerebrace, ea. (Half Plate) Common 0.25 £0. 0s. 2d. 1hp.
3-ply 0.5 £0. 0s. 5d.
4-ply 0.75 £0. 0s. 7d. 3fg.
32 Rerebrace, ea. Field Plate Strong (steel) 1 £0. 0s. 7d. 3fg.
Proof 1.25 £0. 0s. 10d.
Double Proof 1.5 £0. 1s. 0d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 2 £0. 1s. 3d. 1fg.
32 Rerebrace, ea. (Half Plate) Strong (steel) 0.5 £0. 0s. 4d. 3fg.
Proof 0.75 £0. 0s. 6d. 1fg.
Double Proof 1 £0. 0s. 7d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 1.25 £0. 0s. 9d. 1fg.
33 Cowter, ea. Cuerbully Common 0.5 £0. 0s. 5d.
3-ply 0.75 £0. 0s. 7d. 3fg.
4-ply 1 £0. 0s. 10d. 1fg.
33 Cowter, ea. Field Plate Strong (steel) 1 £0. 0s. 7d. 3fg.
Proof 1.25 £0. 0s. 10d.
Double Proof 1.5 £0. 1s. 0d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 2 £0. 1s. 3d. 1fg.
34 Vambrace, ea. Brigandine Strong (steel) 1.75 £0. 0s. 10d. 1hp.
Proof 2.25 £0. 1s. 0d. 1hp.
Double Proof 2.75 £0. 1s. 4d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 3.25 £0. 1s. 8d. 1fg.
34 Vambrace, ea. Cuerbully Common 0.75 £0. 0s. 7d. 1hp.
3-ply 1.25 £0. 0s. 11d. 1hp.
4-ply 1.5 £0. 1s. 3d. 1fg.
34 Vambrace, ea. (Half Plate) Common 0.5 £0. 0s. 3d. 3fg.
3-ply 0.5 £0. 0s. 5d. 1fg.
4-ply 0.75 £0. 0s. 6d. 1hp.
34 Vambrace, ea. Field Plate Strong (steel) 1.5 £0. 1s. 1d. 1hp.
Proof 2 £0. 1s. 3d. 1hp.
Double Proof 2.5 £0. 1s. 7d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 3 £0. 1s. 11d. 1fg.
34 Vambrace, ea. (Half Plate) Strong (steel) 0.75 £0. 0s. 5d. 3fg.
Proof 1 £0. 0s. 7d. 3fg.
Double Proof 1.25 £0. 0s. 9d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 1.5 £0. 0s. 11d. 1hp.
35 Gauntlet, ea. Cuerbully Common 1 £0. 0s. 9d.
35 Gauntlet, ea. Field Plate Strong (steel) 1.75 £0. 1s. 1d. 1hp.
Proof 2.25 £0. 1s. 5d. 1hp.
Double Proof 2.75 £0. 1s. 9d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 3.25 £0. 2s. 1d. 1fg.
36 Arm Harness Cuerbully Common 1.5 £0. 1s. 1d. 1hp.
3-ply 2.25 £0. 1s. 6d. 3fg.
4-ply 3 £0. 2s. 0d. 1hp.
36 Arm Harness (Half Plate) Common 1 £0. 0s. 8d.
3-ply 1.5 £0. 11d. 3fg.
4-ply 1.75 £0. 2d. 3fg.
36 Arm Harness Field Plate Strong (steel) 5.25 £0. 4s. 0d. 1fg.
Proof 6.5 £0. 4s. 8d. 1hp.
Double Proof 7.5 £0. 5s. 4d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 8.5 £0. 6s. 0d.
36 Arm Harness (Half Plate) Strong (steel) 3.5 £0. 2s. 5d. 1fg.
Proof 4 £0. 2s. 10d. 1fg.
Double Proof 4.5 £0. 3s. 2d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 5 £0. 3s. 7d. 1fg.

Leg Armor, Plate

  Piece Armor Type Wt. Cost
37 Cuisse, ea. Gamboised padded (1) 0.75 £0. 0s. 5d.
    padded (2) 1 £0. 0s. 6d. 1hp.
    padded (3) 1.25 £0. 0s. 8d.
    padded (4) 1.5 £0. 0s. 9d. 1hp.
    Reinforced (1) 1.75 £0. 0s. 10d.
    Reinforced (2) 2 £0. 0s. 11d. 1hp.
    Reinforced (3) 2.25 £0. 1s. 1d.
    Reinforced (4) 2.5 £0. 1s. 2d. 1hp.
37 Cuisse, ea. Brigandine Strong (steel) 1.75 £0. 0s. 8d. 1hp.
Proof 2.25 £0. 1s. 0d. 1hp.
Double Proof 2.75 £0. 1s. 4d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 3.25 £0. 1s. 8d. 1fg.
37 Cuisse, ea. Cuerbully Common 0.75 £0. 0s. 7d. 3fg.
3-ply 1 £0. 0s. 11d. 1hp.
4-ply 1.5 £0. 1s. 3d. 1fg.
37 Cuisse, ea. (Half Plate) Common 0.5 £0. 0s. 3d. 3fg.
3-ply 0.5 £0. 0s. 5d. 3fg.
4-ply 0.75 £0. 0s. 7d. 3fg.
37 Cuisse, ea. Field Plate Strong (steel) 1.5 £0. 0s. 11d. 1hp.
Proof 2 £0. 1s. 3d. 1hp.
Double Proof 2.5 £0. 1s. 7d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 3 £0. 1s. 11d. 1fg.
37 Cuisse, ea. (Half Plate) Strong (steel) 0.75 £0. 0s. 5d, 3fg.
Proof 1 £0. 0s. 7d. 3fg.
Double Proof 1.25 £0. 0s. 10d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 1.75 £0. 1s. 1d. 3fg.
38 Poleyn, ea. Cuerbully Common 0.75 £0. 0s. 6d. 1hp.
3-ply 1 £0. 0s. 9d. 1hp.
4-ply 1.25 £0. 1s. 0d. 1hp.
38 Poleyn, ea. Field Plate Strong (steel) 1.25 £0. 0s. 9d. 1hp.
Proof 1.75 £0. 1s. 0d. 3fg.
Double Proof 2.25 £0. 1s. 5d.
Triple Proof 3 £0. 1s. 10d. 3fg.
39 Greave, ea. Brigandine Strong (steel) 2.25 £0. 1s. 0d. 1hp.
Proof 3 £0. 1s. 5d. 1hp.
Double Proof 3.75 £0. 2s. 0d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 4.5 £0. 2s. 6d.
39 Greave, ea. Cuerbully Common 1 £0. 0s. 10d.
3-ply 1.5 £0. 1s. 3d.
4-ply 2 £0. 1s. 8d.
39 Greave, ea. (Half Plate) Common 0.5 £0. 0s. 5d.
3-ply 0.75 £0. 0s. 7d. 3fg.
4-ply 1 £0. 0s. 10d. 1fg.
39 Greave, ea. Field Plate Strong (steel) 2 £0. 1s. 3d. 1hp.
Proof 2.75 £0. 1s. 8d. 1hp.
Double Proof 3.5 £0. 2s. 3d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 4.25 £0. 2s. 9d.
39 Greave, ea. (Half Plate) Strong (steel) 1 £0. 0s. 7d. 3fg.
Proof 1.25 £0. 0s. 10d. 1fg.
Double Proof 1.75 £0. 1s. 1d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 2.25 £0. 1s. 6d. 1fg.
40 Sabaton, ea. Cuerbully Common 0.5 £0. 0s. 5d.
40 Sabaton, ea. Field Plate Strong (steel) 1 £0. 0s. 7d. 3fg.
Proof 1.25 £0. 0s. 10d. 1fg.
    Double Proof 1.75 £0. 1s. 1d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 2.25 £0. 1s. 6d. 1fg.
41 Leg Harness Cuerbully Common 2.5 £0. 2s. 10d. 1hp.
3-ply 3.75 £0. 4s. 0d. 1fg.
4-ply 5 £0. 5s. 2d.
41 Leg Harness (Half Plate) Common 1.5 £0. 1s. 10d. 1hp.
3-ply 2.25 £0. 2s. 7d. 1fg.
    4-ply 2.75 £0. 3s. 4d. 1fg.
41 Leg Harness Field Plate Strong (steel) 7 £0. 4s. 6d. 1fg.
Proof 8.5 £0. 5s. 5d. 3fg.
Double Proof 10 £0. 6s. 5d. 1hp.
    Triple Proof 11.5 £0. 7s. 5d. 1fg.
41 Leg Harness (Half Plate) Strong (steel) 2.75 £0. 2s. 6d. 1hp.
Proof 3.5 £0. 3s. 2d. 1hp.
Double Proof 4.5 £0. 3s. 10d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 5.25 £0. 4s. 7d.

Armor Notes

All pieces of plate, regardless of whether steel or cuerbully, are lined and to a minimal extent also padded for the wearer’s comfort but more importantly to keep the pieces from wearing against one another where they overlap and rub, especially at the joints.

All items of plate armor, whether cuerbully or steel plate, and all items such as sleeves and sets of Arm Plates and Leg Plates are listed on the rosters to be sold individually. The prices and weights listed are PER ITEM or set. The player must buy two if he wants to cover the character on right AND left.

In addition, the terms “gambeson”, “shirt”, “coat”, “habergeon”, “hauberk”, and “doublet”, though they DID occur in the context in which they have been used here, are rather ill-defined terms that were loosely used historically. The scope of their use has been limited and standardized here for simplicity’s sake for the purposes of the game only, when in fact they were used to describe various sorts of similar garments.

The main virtue of both armor and shields is represented by the number of points of protection they provide against damage, called its Damage Resistance (DR). Each type of armor is rated according to its quality. The higher a piece of armor’s DR, the better the character is protected by it when he gets hit. The DR’s of the different types of armors are gathered for comparison and contrast in the following table, for the player’s convenience.

Only when the virtue of the armor is exceeded by the damage inflicted by a blow landing upon it does the nature of the damage itself – whether it be bludgeoning, chopping or cutting, slashing, or piercing – come into play, dictating the type of wound and its effects (ie., whether it bleeds and how it must be addressed by a healer).

Armor/Shield DR Recap      

Padded Armor DR
simple padding, single thickness 10
2-fingers thick 15
3-fingers thick 20
4-fingers thick 25
Enhancements DR
Studded (+5)
Trellised (+10)
Bezainted (+15)
Ringed (+20)
Metal Strength DR
Strong 40
Proof 50
Double Proof 60
Triple Proof 70
Cuerbully Plate DR
Common (2-ply) 30
3-ply 45
4ply 60
Shields DR
Wood (alder or poplar assumed) 25
Steel-Bound 30
Steel (see Metal Strength above)

Padded Garments & Enhanced Padded Armors

Padded garments and armors protect best against impact damage and the bludgeoning weapons designed to enhance impact damage. These garments were originally worn as padding to make metal armors like chainmail more bearable and safer to wear in battle. They emerged over time as they were adapted into forms of armor in their own right, however, for the poorer warriors on the field due to the prohibitive cost of the metal armors.

The DR’s of padded armors are measured in fingers’-widths of thickness, as many as four. Each successive thickness raises the DR. The higher a piece of armor’s DR the better protection it provides.

Because the basic purpose and construction for all padded armors is the same, all those of the same thickness will have the same DR. Padded garments treated with metal fittings such as studs or rings applied to add some small protection from cutting damage are called “enhanced” padding and are considered armor in their own right. Enhancement can take a number of forms, from studded, trellised, or bezainted to ringed.

If a padded garment has been enhanced, the modifier noted on table 6-7. (previously) in parenthesis is added to the base DR for the armor according to its thickness.

The primary disadvantage to padded armors lies in their vulnerability to piercing weapons. From such weapons as arrows or crossbow bolts, or piercing blades such as tuck-swords or rapiers, only (DR) points are deducted from the damage inflicted, the rest go through as the missile pierces the armor and enters the wearer’s body. The simpler the enhancement of the padding, the more vulnerable the wearer is to types of weapons that can be used for thrusting or piercing attacks.

Simple Padding

Padded garments are made of a sandwich of stout buckram, canvas, or some similar material, stuffed and quilted with either stacked layers of linen (from 18 to as many as 30), or batting of cotton, jute/hemp, old rags, tow or even grass. This is stiff like a pair of new blue-jeans when new but become more supple and conform to the wearer’s body as he wears, fights, and sweats in it, breaking it in. At no difference in cost or weight, the outer shell of the garment may be common thin garment leather, more stylish to many, but with no affect on the value of the garment as armor. The nobility commonly wear padded garments (mostly simple, single thickness) finished with an outer layer of silk, velvet, satin, or other fine and costly fabric, silk especially as the inner-most layer under their armor, for comfort.

Studded –

Studded armor is also called “pourpoint”, or literally “for points”, from the use as the base onto which laces called “points” were affixed that were used to tie-on and anchor various parts of field plate armors. The only difference between this and standard padding is the treatment of studs securing the quilting, on average about an inch apart and sometimes laid on in a fanciful figural pattern (at some greater cost), the studs serving to make the padding stiffer and also offering a little resistance to the edge of a blade.

Trellised –

Trellised armor is padded armor that is covered with a system of reinforcing bands of leather of about 1 inch in width sewn on in an open, criss-crossing pattern like a trellis used to support climbing plants. At the center of each square created by the trellised bands, the padding is secured with a large metal stud or rivet.

Bezainted –

Bezainted armor is padded armor that is covered with a close pattern (not so close as to inhibit movement) of small, coin-shaped steel disks. The disks are called “bezaints” by the warriors of the historic medieval world, after the Byzantine coins the little disks resembled, from which this padded armor treatment takes its name. The bezaints are secured to the quilted base with large steel studs/rivets driven through their centers.

Ringed –

Ringed armor takes its name from the fact that it is covered with a series of roughly 2in. diameter steel rings with simple, butted ends. These are either sewn on with heavy thread or may be riveted on. Although the rings are most commonly set abutting side-by-side, they are sometimes also secured in an overlapping pattern, instead.

Metal & Rigid Armors

Metal and rigid armors are designed to resist piercing and cutting damage, to shed the blows of blades and missiles, but because of their rigid nature they are also very effective against impact damage, in some cases even moreso than any of the padded garments or armors.

The higher a piece of armor’s DR, the better protection it provides against the DB damage inflicted by weapons, or generated by their DM’s, if those optional rules are in play. The strength of metal armor noted as either common, called “Strong”, or measured by one of a series of “Proofs”.

Plate armors of Strong steel can be pierced by bodkin-headed Sheaf arrows or armor-piercing crossbow bolts (“de ere pennate”) so long as the target is within Close range.

There are three Proofs for metal armors: Single Proof, Double Proof, and Triple Proof. These appear as (successive) rows of maker’s marks stamped on the armor. Each Proof indicates that the armor, or at the very least the metal from which the armor was made, has been tested for its strength in resisting the penetrating power of certain types of weapons.

Strong metal armors are assumed to only be able to resist the cutting and/or piercing attacks of common (single-handed) melée weapons (axe and sword) and missile weapons when wielded by the hand of the average man or Warrior (STR 13). Metal armors of common soldiers who can afford steel at all is generally made of this grade of steel.

Single Proof armors have actually been tested against single-handed melée weapons (axe and sword), and will withstand the attacks of even a strong man (up to c. 20STR), though not necessarily the truly heroic in STR (21+).

Double Proof armors have been tested against single-handed melée weapons (axe and sword), hurled javelins/spears and light crossbows, and will withstand the attacks of even those of heroic STR.

Triple Proof armors have been tested against single-handed melée weapons (axe and sword), hurled javelin/spear, light crossbow, and even heavy crossbow (ballista) and will withstand the attacks of even those of heroic STR, perhaps even a few monstrous blows such as those dealt by Ogres and Trolls.

All metal armors rated for the same class of protection (Strong, Proof, Double Proof, or Triple Proof) have the same DR, due to the fact that they are all made of the same quality of steel, that steel worked to the same degree. Against the impact or force of the weapon striking it (the base determined by the foe’s STR and STA), however, the protection provided is directly governed by the method of construction. This is explained in detail in the descriptions of the types of armors, following.

The real virtue of metal armors over the padded garments and even the enhanced padded armors lies in the fact that, when the DR of a padded armor is exceeded by a blow landing upon it, not only is the DR reduced by one (1) against the next blow landing in the same AoD, but any edged weapon actually cuts through it, meaning the balance of the damage is suffered in BP’s due to an open wound being suffered.

For metal armors and for shields this is not so. Depending on the type of construction of the armor, the wearer may suffer a few points of the base damage of a blow which passes through automatically as bludgeoning damage (regardless of the type of weapon inflicting the damage), but exceeding the DR only reduces it by one (1) point against the next strike landing on that AoD, and that continues until its protection is exhausted.

Mail Armor

While often referred to as “chainmail” that term is basically redundant, as all mail (or “maille” in French) whether single- or double-, is by definition made of little steel links, or chain. It was made in two forms, singlemail or doublemail, doublemail being the stronger.

Singlemail consists of a series of interlocking metal rings of roughly 1/4th inch in diameter in a relatively open weave, four-on-one pattern.

Doublemail consists of a series of interlocking metal rings constructed in the same four-on-one pattern of singlemail, except that two rings are threaded through for every one found in singlemail. In its final form, doublemail approaches the thickness and suppleness of quarter-inch to half-inch felt.

At the height of the craft, both single- and doublemail were made and sheared in lengths like cloth. Mails have no backing or lining, unlike most other armors, especially plate, which is lined in fabric to keep the pieces from wearing against one another as well as for comfort in preventing chafing. A padded garment of some sort, even if only of a single thickness, is required to be worn under all mail garments to absorb the impact which the rings are designed to spread over a larger area. Otherwise, those rings that break upon the impact of a foe’s weapon will be driven directly into the flesh by the blow.

A further disadvantage of singlemail over doublemail is its greater vulnerability to piercing attacks, especially from arrow fire.

The garments of mail listed on the following rosters will cover ALL of each AoD they cover, equal to the fully developed mail historically found after the mid-1200’s.

As an alternative, half-mail is also available in both single- and doublemail. Half-mail covers only the Front of the body and the Outside of the Arms. This mail is edged in leather and tied on by a series of laces across the Back or up the Inside of the Arms.

The player may opt to buy half-mail by choice at 60% of the listed cost and half the weight, or he may find that his GM’s campaign is set in an earlier period, where only half-mail is available (GM’s discretion).

Banded Mail

Banded mail is a treatment applied to mail garments in which leather thongs or straps are woven into the spaces in every other row of openings in the links. It is also known as “augmented mail”. This treatment stiffens the mail somewhat, making it a little better able to stop impact damage. Banding may be applied to either singlemail or doublemail, but this does NOT eliminate the need for a padded garment underneath, as there are still rings exposed on the inside which put the wearer at risk when he is struck.

Mail armors provide a unique form of protection in battle. Mail is designed to wear like cloth in that it is made to flex and flow over the body as it moves. It provides as good a level of protection from cutting weapons as any other metal armor but, because it flexes and flows so well, it defends only poorly against the impact of weapons.

When singlemail is struck, 3/4th’s of the base damage (that arising from the attacker’s STR and STA) automatically passes through, to be absorbed by the padding underneath to whatever extent it is capable, while the full amount of damage (as enhanced by the weapon’s DM) tests the DR normally, according to the quality of the steel.

When doublemail is struck, only 50% the base damage automatically passes through.

The reinforcement provided by the treatment of banded mail reduces the amount of base damage that gets through by an additional 10%.

Jazeraint

Jazeraint consists of a series of off-set, overlapping, rectangular scales which are riveted or sewn down onto a leather or heavy canvas backing. As the armor flexes with the wearer’s movements, the scales slide over one another like those of a fish, though not nearly so tightly as only the innermost edge of each scale is secured to the inner garment.

When the scales of this sort of armor are cut into ovals, giving a fish-scale appearance when assembled, it is properly called “mascled” mail.

When purchased in Proof, the proof-marks are either stamped on each scale, making a visible pattern (if difficult to discern except up close), or they are stamped on a single, easily accessible scale which is prominently displayed by the armorer or merchant prior to sale.

Laminated

Laminated armor consists of a series of horizontal strips of steel called “lamés” whose widths will be determined by the area of the body they are used to cover, overlapped and riveted to an inner garment made of strips of hide, heavy cloth, or leather to provide some degree of mobility and flexibility. This sort of armor is also known as “splinted”.

When purchased in Proof, the proof-marks will either be stamped on each lamé, making a visible pattern (if difficult to discern except up close), or they will be stamped on a single, easily accessible lamé which will be prominently displayed by the armorer or merchant prior to sale.

Brigandine

Brigandine is a double-layered garment made of flexible soft leather, canvas, or other heavy fabric (commonly velvet when made for the wealthy) that has a continuous series of small, articulated, over-lapping steel plates running all over between the garment layers which are anchored by rivets or sewn to both the inner and outer layers.

When purchased in Proof, the proof-marks will either be stamped on each little plate, or they will be stamped on a single, easily accessible plate which will be prominently displayed by the armorer or merchant prior to selling it.

Jazeraint, Laminated and Brigandine armors share to a minor degree the weakness of mail armor in that they are designed to move with the body but, due to their methods of construction, they allow nearly as much freedom of movement while offering better protection from the base damage of the blow when struck.

When jazeraint armor is struck, only 30% of the base damage automatically passes through due to the flexibility of the armor.

When laminated armor is struck, only 20% of the base damage automatically passes through due to the flexibility of the armor.

When brigandine armor is struck, only 10% of the base damage automatically passes through due to the flexibility of the armor.

Whatever padding is worn underneath will absorb this damage to whatever extent it is capable, while the full amount will test the DC of the armor, normally, according to the quality of the steel (or cuerbully, in regards to jazeraint, as applicable).

Because they are composed of smaller metal plates attached to a base of another material, Jazeraint, Laminated and Brigandine armors may be collectively referred to as “composite” metal armors.

Cuerbully Plate

The name of this armor is a period English corruption of the French “cuir bouilli”, or “boiled hide”. Cuerbully generally consists of stout layers of leather, each about 1/4th inch thick, which have been boiled in wax, cut and pressed into shape, then allowed to stiffen as they cool into rigid plates resembling field plate (as follows). While this is not a metal armor, it is most certainly a rigid one. These plates share some of the nature of their stouter metal cousins and have been assigned DR’s based on that rigidity, varying as do metal armors, but according to the thickness – from 2-ply (called “common” cuerbully), to 3-ply and even 4-ply, rather than by the Proofs.

Because of the cumulative encroachment and stress on the joints and general stiffness for the purposes of movement, cuerbully thicker than 4-ply (c. 1 inch in thickness) will already have long been proven to be impractical for use in battle and will not be available from any reputable craftsman, except perhaps in pursuit of a jest, and just so long as he is still getting paid.

Historically speaking, in the period of the game, this type of plate was far more common than steel field plate not only because it was cheaper but because it was also lighter to wear. It was favored for the barding of horses for the same reasons, and also widely used in tournaments, especially those in which the combatants fought with mock-weapons of wood or bone, though it was certainly effective against weapons of steel, as well.

Field Plate

Field plate is the epitome of the armorer’s art and just starting to come into its own in the last few years of the period quoted for the game. Also known as “white armor” it is the basis for the romantic image of the knight in shining armor. It consists of a series of over-lapping and interlocking plates of hammered steel about 1/16th of an inch thick (somewhat thinner in less critical areas, somewhat thicker in more vulnerable areas) that together form a contiguous protective shell around the body while still allowing full freedom of movement for all the actions a warrior might be called on for in battle, designed so the weight is borne evenly all over the body. These plates are buffed to a high polish and finished to a glassy smoothness so no blade can bite into them, but glance off when struck. They can be worn secured to other armors or padded garments, usually tied on by “points” or laces, or secured to other pieces of plate by a series of laces, buckles, hinges, and/or screws.

The Full-Plate field plate pieces listed on the armor rosters will be equivalent to the fully developed field plate armor of the late 14th to mid 15th century. Although late in period for the game, this sort of armor is so integral to most peoples’ concepts of the period, the “knight in shining armor”, that for the sake of the romance of the era it is included, not to mention that the development of this form of armoring just makes sense in what is an essentially perpetually medieval world, as reflected by the inclusion of a few of the Renaissance forms of swords, as well.

The Half-Plate referred to on the rosters covers only the Front of the body and Outside of the Arms, as applicable. These pieces are strapped on across the inside of the Arm or across the Back of the body with leather laces or buckled on by leather straps. Half-Plate for the Torso AoD is called a breastplate. There is no Half-Plate option for the Head/Neck area, one either wears a helm or not.

Notes on Garments of Armor

1) The aketon/coat, also known as acton, arming coat, auqueton, hacketon, haqueton, wambais, wambesium and wambs in the period, is a kind of arming coat worn primarily from the 13th through the 15th centuries both as defensive armor unto itself and also as padding under rigid or metal armors. It is generally be made of quilted padding, either sewn or stuffed with layered linen or tow. Aketons were generally cut wide around the arm holes in a manner that followed the line of the breastplate or cuirass. These extra-large arm-holes served to grant complete mobility for a full range of arm motion while providing a last-ditch defense of the area under the arm. Most of the illustrations from the 1300’s show many buttons or laces up the front.

The coat covers the same AoD’s as well, but the term is reserved for the purposes of the game to indicate garments of metal or rigid armors that are NOT made of mail (despite the historic use of the term “coat of mail”), to avoid confusion.

The aketon or coat is a long caftan-like garment made with a slit in the center, front and back, to allow the wearer to mount and sit a saddle comfortably in it while still having his legs covered. In game terms, this covers the Torso, Upper Arms (rt. and Lt.), Forearms (rt. and lt.), Pelvis, Thighs (rt. and lt.), Knees (rt. and lt.), and Lower Legs.

At the player’s option, a hood (coif) can be attached to any aketon or coat to cover the Head, as well, but it must be made of the same type of armor as that which the jerkin or jack is made, though not necessarily the same thickness or Proof. This saves the character 30% off the cost and weight of the coif/hood.

2) Arming Cap: A small quilted cap worn under a mail coif that protects the wearer against blows and the friction of mail against the head. Prior to the 1300’s an arming cap seems to have provided the padding needed to line a helmet shell, but after this the padding was incorporated into the helmet itself. The pieces are sewn in linen and stuffed with the same, drawn together at the top of the helmet and the whole sack mounted to the inside of the helmet, perhaps with some kind of glue or interior laces.

3) The coif/hood covers only the Head (Top, rt. Side, lt. Side, and Back) and Neck (Front, rt. Side, lt. Side, and Back) AoD’s, with a bonus granted to the front and back of the Torso where it hangs in a semi-circle from shoulder to shoulder, providing 1/2 DC to the Upper Back and Chest AoD’s of the Torso. It also has a flap that can be picked up to cover the bottom half of the Face like a veil, and tied off with a leather thong at the temple. This provides 1/2 DC to the Face AoD.

The hood of mail made separate from the hauberk does not appear till the 1200’s, long before the period of the game, BUT the tradition of having it made integrated with the larger garments of mail is why the coif option has been added to the mail garments on the roster.

4) The gambeson or shirt covers the Torso, Upper Arms (rt. and lt.), Forearms (rt. and lt.), Pelvis, and Thighs (rt. and lt.), but the term “gambeson” refers to a soft, quilted, padded garment worn as defensive armor unto itself and also as padding under rigid or metal armors, while the term “shirt” is only properly used to refer to armor of mail.

At the player’s option, a hood (coif) can be attached to any gambeson or shirt to cover the Head and Neck AoD’s, as well, but it must be made of the same type of armor as that which the gambeson or shirt is made, though not necessarily the same thickness or Proof. This saves the character 30% off the cost and weight of the coif/hood.

5) The Jerkin or Jack is a sort of vest that covers only the Torso AoD, lacing up either the front, the back, or the sides (player’s option). A jack made of jazeraint armor is properly called a “clibanion”.

At the player’s option, a hood (coif) can be attached to any jerkin or jack to cover the Head and Neck AoD’s, as well, but it must be made of the same type of armor as that which the jerkin or jack is made, though not necessarily the same thickness or Proof. This saves the character 30% off the cost and weight of the coif/hood.

6) The mantle, also called a Bishop’s Mantle, is a poncho-like garment, round with a hole in the center for the head, that falls over the Upper Arms, the Chest and Ribs in front, and the Upper and Mid-Back.

At the player’s option, a hood (coif) can be attached to any mantle so as to cover the Head and Neck AoD’s, as well, but it must be made of the same type of armor as that which the mantle is made, though not necessarily the same thickness or Proof. This saves the character 30% off the cost and weight of the coif/hood.

7) The sleeves entry represents the very medieval practice of separable sleeves for garments. These are specifically for use with sleeveless garments like jerkins or jacks, but can also be used to add an extra layer of protection to the forward or weapon arm, as well, over a sleeve of some other armor.

Sleeves must be purchased individually, and do not need to both be worn at the same time if the player does not wish, neither do both sleeves have to be of the same type of armor. Each sleeve will cover the Upper Arm and the Forearm AoD’s of the arm over which it is worn, and must be secured to a base garment of some sort. For this purpose, they are equipped with “points” spaced about the armhole openings of both sleeve and base garment for this purpose. Points are pairs of stout thongs or laces with metal points crimped to their ends (similar to the ends of modern shoelaces) to prevent wear and fraying. Because civilian fashions and military gear are made on the same lines and military gear influenced men’s fashions especially among the gentle and noble by birth, sleeves of armor can also be attached to civilian jacks or doublets that offer no appreciable protection in battle without raising comment.

The practice of tying armors down onto a base garment of padding is one of the reasons studded leather padded armors are also called “pourpoint” or “for points”. Aiguillette, also called aglet, aiglet, anglet, literally means “point of a shield” and is the proper name for the small metal end that was capped onto a lacing point in order to keep it from fraying.

8) Gaskins are a type of close-fitting hose or leggings, also called breeks or in French, chausses (what have since become trousers or pants). These cover the Pelvis, Thighs (rt. and lt.), Knees (rt. and lt.), and Lower legs (rt. and lt.).

The player may also choose to add mail foot coverings with a leather sole to his gaskins for a cost of 7d. 3fg. for “strong” steel, 9d. 3fg. for Proof, 11d. 3fg. for double Proof, or 1s. 1d. 1hp. for triple Proof, for EACH foot so covered. This will be accompanied by a 1lb., 1.25lb., 1.5lb., or 1.75lb. increase in the weight of the gaskins for “strong”, Proof, double Proof, or triple Proof, respectively, PER foot so covered.

9) The byrnie (BEER-nee) is another form of shirt, somewhat earlier in period but remaining as an option for those whose funds didn’t allow them access to the best armor. The name is only properly used to refer to armor of mail. It covers only the Torso, Upper Arms (rt. and lt.), Pelvis, and Thighs (rt. and lt.)

At the player’s option, a hood (coif) can be attached to any byrnie to cover the Head and Neck AoD’s, as well, but it must be made of the same type of armor as that which the byrnie is made, though not necessarily the same thickness or Proof. This will save the character 30% off the cost and weight of the coif/hood.

10) The doublet covers the same AoD’s as a gambeson or shirt with the exception that it leaves the Thighs bare. To avoid confusion, the term doublet has been reserved here for the purposes of the game to describe only rigid or metal armors.

At the player’s option, a hood (coif) can be attached to any doublet to cover the Head and Neck AoD’s, as well, but it must be made of the same type of armor as that which the doublet is made, though not necessarily the same thickness or Proof. This saves the character 30% off the cost and weight of the coif/hood.

11) A habergeon (ha-BEHR-jee-on) or “little shirt” is sleeveless in accordance with the usual historic practice, the arm-holes clad in leather so sleeves of other armors may be attached by points. Only properly used to refer to armor of mail, it covers only the Torso and Pelvis, leaving the Thighs bare, like a doublet.

At the player’s option, a hood (coif) can be attached to any gambeson or shirt to cover the Head and Neck AoD’s, as well, but it must be made of the same type of armor as that which the gambeson or shirt is made, though not necessarily the same thickness or Proof. This saves the character 30% off the cost and weight of the coif/hood.

12) The term hauberk is only properly used to indicate a full suit of armor made of mail. This garment covers the Torso, Upper Arms (rt. and Lt.), Forearms (rt. and lt.), Pelvis, Thighs (rt. and lt.), Knees (rt. and Lt.), and Lower Legs (rt. and lt.). With this garment, the player must choose whether the portion covering the legs has been fashioned into leggings, like a bodysuit, or is simply a long, caftan-like garment. If the latter, it is made with a slit in the center, front and back, to allow the character to mount and sit a saddle comfortably in it while still having his legs covered. These two options cost the character nothing, but the choice must be made.

At the player’s option, a hood (coif) can be attached to any aketon, hauberk, or coat to cover the Head, as well, but it must be made of the same type of armor as that which the hauberk is made, though not necessarily the same thickness or Proof. This will save the character 30% off the cost and weight of the coif/hood.

The player may also choose to add mail mittens with leather palms called “mufflers” AND/OR mail foot coverings with a leather sole to his hauberk for a cost of 7d. 3fg. for “strong” steel, 9d. 3fg. for Proof, 11d. 3fg. for double Proof, or 1s. 1d. 1hp. for triple Proof, for EACH hand and/or foot so covered. This will be accompanied by a 1lb., 1.25lb., 1.5lb., or 1.75lb. increase in the weight of the hauberk for “strong”, Proof, double Proof, or triple Proof, respectively, PER hand or foot so covered.

These adjustments should be made PRIOR to the application of any cost and/or weight modifiers due to the character’s STA/race.


Notes on Plate Armors

13) The Breastplate is the fieldplate defense for the Torso. The edge around the neck and arm openings was rolled outward, sometimes over a wire, to guard against chafing and to help deflect a weapon from these vulnerable areas. In the middle of the 1300’s, a “stop rib” was often added to the area just below the neck to keep lances and sword points from sliding up into the Throat. At this time a lance rest was also added to enable the knight to more easily couch the lance for a longer period of time without undue fatigue. The lance rest can be folded upward after the lance has been discarded, so that it will not then impede the mobility of the sword arm.

The Breastplate covers only the Front side of the Torso BP area.

Originally evolved out of the “cote of plates” as the size on each individual plate increased and the front plate was increasingly globular. During the 1300’s the breastplate was often forged from a single piece of steel. The breastplate was fully formed by c. 1360 but was not in general use until the 1380’s. This globular design provided an effective glancing surface that deflected both hand and missile weapons.

During the 1400’s the breastplate was generally made in two or more pieces (especially in the German “gothic” examples). The piecing yielded a good deal of increased mobility and made the war-harness much easier to produce. During the period 1360-1400 the breastplate was seen both in the covered and open form, often worn over a gambeson, though it was sometimes worn under, as well. There are illustrations that show the breastplate worn both over and under of an outer houpelande.

The backplate is the mate for the breastplate. During the 1300’s the backplate made in the style of a brigandine. During the 1400’s the backplate was generally made in many pieces. The piecing yielded a good deal of increased mobility and made the war-harness much easier to produce. By 1400 the usual practice was to attach the breastplate to a backplate. The backplate will cover only the Back of the Torso BP area.

14) Cuirass is the fieldplate defense for the whole Torso. By 1400 the usual practice was to attach the breastplate to a backplate and provide faulds for the defense of the hips/Pelvis. Introduced during the third quarter of the 1300’s, it became the premier defense of the 1400’s.

Italian cuirasses were often more rounded in shape, keeping with the Milanese school lines, formed of larger pieces of thicker steel. German models were sharper, formed of more numerous and thinner plates, often featuring fluting to increase the strength in compensating for the use of thinner plates.

15) Fauld and Culet are two separate pieces of plate composed of lamés, hoops or bands of steel, used to defend the Pelvis (hips, lower abdomen and rear); attached to a breastplate or cuirass. They must be purchased separately. The fauld will cover the Front of the Pelvis, the Culet will cover the Rear of the Pelvis.

16) Tasset or Tuille (French, “shingle” or “tile”), is a plate thigh-guard worn suspended from the fauld or breast plate to protect the wearer from hip to thigh. Tuille is French for a slate shingle used on houses in the medieval period and this defense gets its name from its similar shape or appearance.

Tassets are worn in conjunction with a cuirass or a cuirass with fauld and/or culet, on the Front side of the body only, generally in conjunction with a Culet over the Rear. When worn without a fauld, each tasset will cover half of the Front of the Pelvis, either right or left; with a fauld, each will hang about halfway down the applicable Thigh, adding half the DC and DR to the ratings of the cuisse or any other armor underneath it.

17) A Tonlet is a skirt of plate composed of lamés, hoops or bands of steel, most commonly horizontal in orientation, but often rendered in vertical flutes resembling folds of cloth, reflecting the skirting of civilian upper garments. While it could be cut so that a moon-shaped piece could be removed from the front and back to allow the wearer to sit a saddle, doing so was not necessarily a satisfactory solution and the tonlet remained almost exclusively the armor of the knight fighting on foot.

The tonlet is attached with screws or buckles to a cuirass and covers the Pelvis (Front & Rear, Hips rt. & lt.), and both Thighs (Front & Back).

18) White Armor is a full suit of plate armor. It’s name comes from the very high glossy white polish that was often put on the armor to protect it from rust and the elements. It is the basis for the romantic image of the knight in shining armor. This is a complete ensemble, cap à pied (from head to foot), a complete set of plate armor to protect the entire body, consisting of an armet, gorget, cuirass, and close helm for the Head, Neck, Torso and Pelvis, the spaudler, rerebrace, cowter, vambrace, and gauntlet for the rt. and lt. Arms, the cuisses, poleyns, greaves, and sabatons for the rt. & lt. Legs. It covers ALL AoD’s, Front & Back, Inside & Outside, BUT the player will need to read the descriptions for the individual pieces so he can understand how they fit together in game terms, as some of them grant bonuses to certain areas and others do not exactly fit into the system of BP’s and AoD’s adopted for purposes of the game.

19) The Aventail or camail is a “skirt” of mail attached to a nasal helm, bascinet or armet during the 13-1400’s. It defends the Neck (Front, rt. & lt. Sides, and Back) AoD’s from attack, usually hanging to at least 1″ below the shoulder point for bascinets. Generally it was attached to a leather cuff that wrapped around the base of the bascinet and up the cheeks, which was pierced with holes and laced to the helmet through a series of piercings or staples called “vervelles”.

20) The Armet or Armet à rondel or Close Helm is composed of four pieces : a snug-fitting bowl or skull that came to just above the ears, fitted with a pair of cheek plates that attached by hinges, and a visor fills in around the nose and eyes to make an exceptionally functional closed helmet. Usually the chin pieces clasp in the front and secure in the back along a strip of steel that extends from the shallow skull bowl. The skull-piece itself is often reinforced with an additional layer of steel across the brow. A disc of metal called a “rondel” was sometimes attached to the back of these helmets, at the base of the skull-piece, hence the name armet á rondel. Due to its position, it would certainly foul any strike aimed at the back of the Head/Neck.

This was the dominant helmet during much of the 1400’s. The Armet gradually evolved into the first truly international style of helmet, the close helmet. The armet succeeded the bascinet as the most common helmet in Europe, taking elements from the great bascinet. They were exceedingly popular in Italy, France and England, while the Sallet also enjoyed great popularity in those regions and in the German lands, too.

21) The Barbute is a visorless helm with a distinctive “T” or “Y” opening in the front for eyes and mouth, resembling a classical Greek helm. Aside from the distinctive shape of the opening in front, the defining characteristic of this helm is the cheek-pieces which extend all the way down past the jaw line almost to the collar bone to cover the whole of the sides the Face, making wearing a Gorget optional. Barbutes were often covered with fabric in the same manner as a cuirass, most typically with heavy velvet.

The Barbute will cover the Top, rt. & lt. Sides, and Back of the Head, the Back and rt. & lt. Sides of the Neck and will grant a bonus of 3/4th’s normal DC to the Face and Front of the Neck.

22) The Basnet or Bascinet (bassinet, basinet) is a close-fitting, slightly conical, open-faced helm, typically fitted with an aventail or camail (laced to the helmet through a series of piercings or staples called “vervelles”) to protect ALL AoD’s of the Neck. In its most advanced design, the bascinet was fitted with a visor. The visor was often conical, giving the appearance of a muzzle or a beak, sometimes called “dog faced”. In the period they were known as a “hounskull” (hound-skull, as noted on the armor roster). At the player’s option, the visor of any houndskull bascinet may be removable for better visibility and ventilation. There are two means used for attaching the visor to the bascinet. The “klappvisor” is a single hinge in the front and center of the forehead that was commonly used in Germany. The other is a side-pivot mount, using two pivots on the side of the helmet which connect to the visor with hinges to compensate for the lack of parallel orientation in the pivots, commonly seen in Italian armors. Which system is used for the PC’s houndskull bascinet will be entirely up to the player.

 Most knights had discarded the Great Helm altogether by the middle of the 1300’s in favor of a fully visored bascinet. On the other hand, the bascinet was still widely used without the visor through the 1500’s, as evidenced by the funeral effigy on a noble’s tomb of that period in Hungary.

By the late 1300’s, the aventail was commonly foregone in favor of a Gorget. The bascinet, both with and without a visor, was the most common helmet worn in Europe during the latter portions of the 1300’s and early 1400’s, including the era of the Hundred Years’ War. Contemporary illustrations show nearly every knight and man-at-arms wearing one of a few variants of the basic houndskull helmet. 

By the mid- to late 1400s, the great bascinet had evolved into the armet or close helm.

23) A Great Helm (also “pot helm”, “bucket helm” and “barrel helm”) is a flat-topped cylinder of steel that completely covers the Head AoD’s, with rather small openings for the eyes and mouth. Although the eye-holes are small they are close to the head, and thus do not restrict the field of vision appreciably. A later variant with a more conical top is known as a “sugarloaf helm”. Although the great helm offers greater protection than helmets used prior to its advent, its main drawback is that it provides only poor ventilation.

A great helm may have also a mail collar, aventail or camail, attached to protect the wearer’s Neck and especially throat, at the player’s option, adding the cost and weight noted for that item on the roster.

A knight might wear the close-fitting bascinet (without a visor) beneath the great helm. this is the only exception to the rule prohibiting wearing multiple layers of plate armor, and was done historically so the great helm could be shed when the knight fought on foot to enable him to breathe more easily.

The flat-topped version of the great helm will NOT contribute to the average DC for determining the armor bonus to the character’s defense DV’s, as that configuration is NOT designed to shed an opponent’s blows, but will catch them instead.

24) The Kettle Hat or Chapel de Fer (French, “iron cap”). This was generally a domed helmet, made in three or more pieces, with a brow flange or rim some 4in’s+ wide all the way around the outside. During the 1300’s it was widely used by English and French men-at-arms (infantry) and bachelor knights who could not afford a bascinet. Due to its symmetrical shape from front to back and side to side it was perfect for use as pot or “kettle”, hence the name. Though scorned as being the mark of a lower class, it proved its effectiveness in battle, the wide brim providing excellent protection from blows from above, as the mounted knights were above the un-mounted men-at-arms and poor knights on foot, and against projectiles or objects dropped from castle walls when engaged in a siege. Squires and other retainers also wore them, and they were often the helmet of choice amongst archers, since if an archer were to lower his head when a salvo of arrows was expected, the whole face would be momentarily protected.

This helm covers the Top of the head and provides a bonus of half its DC to the sides (rt. and lt.) Face and Back of the Head.

25) The Morion is a type of open helmet used during the 1500’s and early 1600’s. It bears a crescent-shaped crest from front to back on Top, and the 3in. or so wide rim peaks in the front and back forming to symmetrical downward-sloping crescents over the ears on each Side. The crest or comb on the top of the helmet added to the helm’s strength.

Although generally identified with the Spanish conquistadors, the morion was common among foot soldiers of all European nationalities, including the English; the first were issued in England during the reign of Edward VI.

The morion will cover the Top, Back, and rt. & lt. Side AoD’s. Because of the configuration of the peaked rim, the helm grants only a 1/4th DC bonus to the Face AoD.

26) The Nasal Helm consists of a pointed steel bowl that fits snugly over the head, usually worn over a mail coif, but always over an arming cap. A reinforcing strip or guard of steel or other metal is fitted to the front of the helm at the brow line projecting down in front of the nose to protect it, called a “nasal”, hence the name. The helms in use from the Norman Conquest to the end of the 1100’s, were mainly of this type, also known as the “Casque Normand”. The cuerbully element of the helm will be 4-ply.

The nasal helm will cover the Top, rt. & lt. Sides, and the Back AoD’s of the Head, and the nasal guard will provide 1/4th the normal DR in protection for the Face.

The nasal helm appeared throughout Europe late in the 800’s, evolving from the Roman legionnaire’s helmet and the crude spangenhelms that replaced them as Europe rebuilt following the fall of Rome, and quickly became the dominant form of head protection. They began to lose popularity at the end of the 1100’s to helms that provided more facial protection. Although the nasal helm lost popularity fell out of use amongst the higher classes of noble knights and men-at-arms, they were still seen amongst archers to whom a wide field of vision was crucial.

Uncommon though not unknown by the mid-thirteenth century, they may well be considered quaint antiques by the period of the game. It may well be that a character’s budget is limited, however, and they are better by far than no protection for the head at all.

27) Sallet, Salade is a common helmet of the 1400’s, varying in style according to national preferences and rapid changes in defensive requirements. Most sallets are characterized by coming down only as far as the jaw-line and having a flared tail, drawn out either from a single or several attached pieces out and down over the back of the neck. Some sallets were fitted with visors, while others were worn open-faced. Sallet design roughly followed the nationalistic style preferences represented by the Milanese and Gothic styles, though there was a degree of overlap as armories strove to create pieces in competition with their rivals. There is no clear distinction between a sallet and the barbute or the armet. There are pieces that are clearly both a sallet and a barbute or an armet. Generally the sallet was a lighter helmet that was in common use amongst the soldiery throughout the period, while the armet and barbute seem to have been more popular with the nobility, at least in Italy. In Germany the sallet held universal appeal, while in England and France all three styles were worn, imported from continental armories with the best in quality being the only criterion.

28) A Bevor is a cupped plate armor defense into which the chin and lower jaw/Face nestle, commonly attached to a gorget. The bevor will add 1/4th its normal DC to protection of the Face AoD.

At the player’s option, the character purchasing both bevor and gorget can have made together, all of a piece, at no extra cost.

IF the bevor is purchased without the gorget, it will extend down the Front of the Neck to provide full protection, and it MUST have either a breastplate or cuirass or other base garment that covers the Neck to which it can be attached.

Historically, the Bevor was popular for use with the  sallet helm in the German style, although they were also fitted to Italian armors.

29) The Gorget (gor-JHAY), gorge, or collar is a piece of plate armor worn to defend the Front, rt. & lt. Sides, and Back AoD’s of the Neck, usually hinged on the left side and affixed on the right side with some kind of latch mechanism to lock it closed.

Although available, these elements were unpopular until the late 1400’s. Examples from the 1500’s were often fitted with a pin by which the pauldrons were attached. During the 1300’s, the aventail was the favored defense for the Neck. During the 1400’s, bevors were used in conjunction with sallet helmets and the face piece on the armet was fitted with a very short aventail.

30) The Pauldron, also pouldron or powldron, evolved from the spaudler (as follows) – expanded and somewhat more cumbersome, but offering wider and more comprehensive protection. The pauldron is generally attached by strap and buckle to the gorget or lateral neckline of the cuirass, wrapping all the way from within a couple inches of the center of the upper back up and around the shoulder and upper arm to cover the chest to within a couple inches of the centerline, hinged with a pivot-point rivet on the chest and over the shoulder-blade. Due to its shape and the manner in which it is attached, the pauldron is an exception to the single-layer-of-plate rule, it is in fact designed to be worn over top of the rerebraces and cuirass.

Although there is no “Shoulder” AoD in the game, it is possible for a character to take a hit in the shoulder where it stretches down the humerus bone of the Upper Arm, or specifically in the chest or upper back on the Torso. Each pauldron adds 1/4th it’s DC to the Front and Back of the Torso, 1/2 to the Outside of the Upper Arm on the side on which it is worn, and 1/4th to the Inside. , or will provide its full normal defensive value when the GM’s hit location table indicates a direct hit on the shoulder in battle.

The pauldron is listed by weight and cost per piece on the roster, individually so the character may wear one or two, at the player’s discretion). Perhaps the character will wear the Pauldron on the primary weapon-hand side, which is at greater risk of being struck, and a spaudler on the off-hand side.

As the desire for greater and greater defense increased the demand for full plate protection, the size of the spaudler was increased to cover the armpit and even part of the back and chest, at which point modern scholars have separated out the term pauldron to classify these more extensive defenses.

The development of the pauldron came after 1395, when the shoulder cop of the spaudler was enlarged to cover more of the armpit, the flanges in front and back extending to cover part of the back and chest where they were hinged so the armpit would still be protected when the arm was moved away from the Torso.

31) The Spaudler, also spaulder, is the primary plate defense for the shoulder point, most prominent in the 13-1400’s, featuring a small rounded “cop” for defense for the shoulder point and a number of lamés extending down to the Upper Arm to attach to the rerebrace.

Although there is no “Shoulder” AoD in the game, it is possible for a character to take a hit in the shoulder where it stretches down the humerus bone of the Upper Arm. The spaudler adds 1/2 to the Outside of the Upper Arm on the side on which it is worn, or will provide its full normal defensive value when the GM’s hit location table indicates a direct hit on that area in battle.

The spaudler is listed by weight and cost per piece on the roster, individually so the character may buy either one spaudler to wear on one shoulder or two to wear them on both shoulders (player’s discretion).

During the 1300’s these lamés were generally attached permanently to the rerebrace to make a contiguous “harness”, but the designs of the 1400’s commonly separated the spaudler into a separate piece. As the desire for greater and greater defense increased the demand for full plate protection, the size of the spaudler was increased to cover the armpit and even part of the back and chest, at which point modern scholars have separated out the term pauldron to classify these more extensive defenses.

32) The Rerebrace (brassard or brassart, sometimes referred to as the “upper cannon of the vambrace”) is a piece of plate armor, is a “tubular” or “gutter” defense, designed to protect the upper arm from the elbow to the shoulder defenses.

The rerebrace is listed by weight and cost per piece on the roster, individually so the character may buy either one rerebrace to wear on one Upper Arm or two to wear them on both Upper Arms (player’s discretion).

Each rerebrace will cover the Outside & Inside of the Upper Arm, unless the player chooses to purchase only half-armor, in which case only the Outside of the Upper Arm will be covered.

33) The Cowter (also couter) is the plate defense for the elbow joint, commonly though mistakenly called the “elbow cop”.

Although there is no “Elbow” AoD in the game, it is possible for a character to take a hit in either the upper arm or the forearm at the elbow, and the wide flanges above and below the joint will add 1/4th the DC of the cowter plate to the defenses of both the Upper Arm and the Forearm, or will provide its full normal defensive value when the GM’s hit location table indicates a direct hit on the elbow area in battle.

The cowter is listed by weight and cost per piece on the roster, individually so the character may buy either one cowter to wear on one elbow or two to wear them on both elbows (player’s discretion).

During the 1300’s the “elbow cop” was generally fairly shallow, starting off rounded in the early part of the century and progressing towards a more conical but still rounded shape as the century progressed. In the second quarter of the century a “wing” was added to the cowter to improve the protection for the joint itself, especially deflecting weapon strikes away from the inside of the joint.

The “wing” was first affixed with laces, then with rivets, and in mid-century was made integral to the cowter itself. Wing decoration then flourished, with the shapes varying by region, date and favorite fashion. About the same time that the more conical shape came into popularity, possibly because of this need, the cowter was during the second half of the century articulated using two or three lamés to attach it into a single jointed defense or “arm harness” that stretched from the wrist and forearm (defended by the vambrace) and the upper arm (defended by the rerebrace and spaudler).

34) The Vambrace is a “tubular” or “gutter” defense for the forearm, developed first during the 1300’s.

During the whole transitional period, many materials were experimented with leather, sometimes reinforced with longitudinal strips of iron or steel as in reinforced gamboised, with or without separate cowters. Generally laced directly to an underlying layer of mail, by 1335 in England the mail was reduced and the vambrace was attached to the cowter via lamés and rivets. The use of iron was essentially introduced at that time. Splinted vambraces were popular in Germany and in Italy during the whole of the 1300’s, featuring heavy, possibly tooled leather and reinforced with longitudinal strips of metal.

Each vambrace will cover the Outside & Inside of the Forearm, unless the player chooses to purchase only half-armor, in which case only the Outside of the Forearm will be covered. The vambrace is listed by weight and cost per piece on the roster, individually so the character may buy either one vambrace to wear on one Forearm or two to wear them on both Forearms (player’s discretion).

35) A Gauntlet is the plate armor designed to defend the hand. The part of the gauntlet defending the wrist is called the “cuff”, and was flared widely in the “hourglass”-style during the 1300’s.

The gauntlet is listed by weight and cost per piece on the roster, individually so the character may buy either one gauntlet to wear on one Hand or two to wear them on both Hands (player’s discretion).

Each gauntlet will cover the Outside of the Wrist/Hand. The Inside or palm-side of a gauntlet will always be composed of the base leather or canvas to which the armor plates are riveted or sewn. Any strike landed by an enemy to the Inside of the Wrist/Hand AoD will lose only one (1) point of damage penetrating it, and it will have a DR of only one (1), offering no further protection once that first strike gets through.

Prior to the 1300’s, the hand was defended with a mail mitten or “muffler”. During the first half of the 1300’s, gauntlets were introduced formed of small plates riveted to leather or cloth, what we call a brigandine gauntlet. Only a few examples survive, all from the 1361 Battle of Wisby. The “hourglass” gauntlet, typified by the flared cuff that allowed some wrist movement, was developed by the middle of the 1300’s.

Often the metacarpal (back of the hand) and the cuff will be decorated by engraving or with additional pieces in brass or bronze, especially by those of rank to display their wealth. The fingers are defended either by scaled defenses and sometimes by “gatlings”. Gatlings are the small joint defenses on an articulated finger gauntlet, much like poleyns for the finger knuckles. These are usually attached to a leather or canvas base by sewing or by rivets. They might be of iron or latten. The gatlings of the gauntlets of the wealthy might be cast into heads of creatures, especially mythical, or other forms. Historically, acorns were a very popular motif. There are some references, most notably in reference to the Battle of San Romano, which indicate that this style of gauntlet might have been used, at least in Italy, as late as the 1450 or 1475.

During the 1400’s, Milanese armorers replaced the “finger gauntlet” with a three-piece “mitten” gauntlet that replaced the finger scales with two articulating lamés that provided more protection but less mobility. A minor variant, the “locking” mitten , was designed for tournament use during the 16th century. No earlier examples survive, though there are references in manuscripts from the middle 14th century that mention such locking gauntlets. The cuff of the mitten was extended and straightened, losing the flare of the hourglass gauntlet. In the German style, the cuff was also extended, but the plates were ornately fluted and decorated with pierce work.

Meanwhile, the Gothic gauntlet continued to be made from many small plates intricately articulated together with a mixture of sliding and pivoting rivets, the fingers still articulated using gatlings and scales. During the 1500’s, this style was generalized into a more international style where the gothic cuff was shortened, the metacarpal created from as many as fifteen plates, and the fingers done in scale.

36) The Arm Harness entry refers to all of the pieces of plate armor used in the defense of the arm. This is an ensemble, a complete set of plate armor to protect the entire arm from shoulder to fingertips consisting of spaudler, rerebrace, cowter, vambrace, and gauntlet.

Each arm harness covers the shoulder, the Outside & Inside of the Upper Arm, the elbow, the Outside & Inside of the Forearm, and the Outside of the Wrist/Hand, unless the player chooses to purchase only half-armor, in which case only the Upper Arm and Forearms will only be covered on the Outside. BUT the player will need to read the descriptions for the individual pieces so he can understand how they fit together in game terms, as some of them grant bonuses to certain areas and others do not exactly fit into the system of BP’s and AoD’s adopted for purposes of the game.

The arm harness is listed by weight and cost per arm on the roster, individually so the character may buy either one set of harness to wear on one Arm or two to wear them on both Arms (player’s discretion).

Prior to the 1300’s, the arm was defended by a mail sleeve over an aketon. In the early 1300’s a was cowter added to protect the elbow point. During the middle of the 1300’s this cowter was attached by rivets and lamés to the vambrace which defended the lower arm and the rerebrace that defended the upper arm. Generally the resulting “arm harness,” in one piece, was laced to the gambeson by a point from the top edge of the rerebrace at the outside of the arm. Over the rerebrace was then laid the spaudler and later the pauldron, defenses that covered the shoulder and uppermost arm. This piece was also laced to the gambeson by a point along the top edge.

This defense remained more or less constant during the 1400’s, except that the wing on the cowter was expanded in size to cover more of the inside of the elbow or enclose it completely.

37) The Cuisses are plate armor “tubular” or “gutter”-type defenses for the Thighs.

The cuisse was used as the anchor for the defense of the knee, the poleyn, which was attached either to the cuisse directly (usually before 1350) or articulated using lamés to create a more moveable joint.

Gamboised cuisses are quilted defenses, essentially half-armor for protecting the Front AoD of each Thigh. They were often worn as an addition to mail chausses, not only on top of them but also under them. These cuisses were sometimes adorned with embroidery especially by wealthier knights as a visual display of their station.

The lower ends of the cuisses were secured just above the knee by a strap and buckle or by a thong. One of the main roles of the cuisses was to serve as an attachment base for the poleyns (a plate metal cup covering and protecting the knee).

Each cuisse will cover the Front & Back of the Thigh, unless the player chooses to purchase only half-armor, in which case only the Front of the Thigh will be covered. The cuisse is listed by weight and cost per piece on the roster, individually so the character may buy either one cuisse to wear on one Thigh or two to wear them on both Thighs (player’s discretion).

During the 14th century cuisses were at first either leather, splinted leather, cuerbully, or gamboised (quilted cloth). These defenses were often elaborately carved and studded, and/or painted or embroidered. From the middle of the 1300’s, these experimental materials for cuisses were frequently replaced by early plate armors. By the 1380s, the cuisse was often made from one broad piece covering most of the thigh and one or more smaller pieces at the hip. Arming points are provided at the top for the cuisse so that the cuisse can be laced to the arming hose or gambeson. This form of cuisse remained popular during the whole of the 15th century, divided in style according to the Gothic or Milanese fashion. During the 1400’s a second plate was added to the cuisse wrapping around to defend the back of the thigh, especially as foot combat for knights became more common.

Gamboised cuisses were in use from no later than 1250 until at least the beginning of the 15th century, and maybe later.

38) A Poleyn is the plate defense for the knee joint, commonly though mistakenly referred to as a “knee cop” by modern medieval re-enactors. Like the cowter, the poleyn has a fan- or heart-shaped flange extending back from the side protecting the wearer from strikes to the back of the knee.

Each poleyn will cover the Front & Back of the Knee, unless the player chooses to purchase only half-armor, in which case only the Front of the Knee will be covered. The poleyn is listed by weight and cost per piece on the roster, individually so the character may buy either one poleyn to wear on one Knee or two to wear them on both Knees (player’s discretion).

During the early 14th century, rondels were laced to mail chausses to improve the defense of the Leg. By 1320 these rondels had been replaced by a fully-encompassing “gutter” around the knee itself, laced into place or attached to a cuerbully or gamboised or splinted cuisse at the top and the same construction of greave or shynbald to the bottom. By 1350 the poleyn was articulated with lamés and a heart-shaped wing was then extended from the poleyn itself to provide more protection for the back of the knee, in the same manner as the wing on the cowter for the elbow. After this point the poleyn decreased steadily in size, providing a better platform for the articulation of the joint. The wing on the side expanded and, with minor variations, remained reasonably constant in shape (though larger) throughout the 1400’s. The poleyns of the 1300’s were generally articulated with no more than 3 lamés, one on top attaching to the cuisse and two between the poleyn and greave below.

39) A Greave or shynbald (SHIN-balt, German) is a field plate defense for the lower leg from just below the Knee to the Ankle. Greaves will be shaped, flared and dished to match the shape of the calf and ankle, making it one of the more difficult pieces of armor to create.

Each greave will cover the Front & Back of the Lower Leg, unless the player chooses to purchase only half-armor, in which case only the Front of the Lower Leg will be covered. The greave is listed by weight and cost per piece on the roster, individually so the character may buy either one greave to wear on one Lower Leg or two to wear them on both Lower Legs (player’s discretion).

Greaves first appear on brasses made during the second quarter of the 1300’s, and remained a standard defense for the lower leg for more than 200 years.

40) A Sabaton or Solleret (soll-er-AY) is plate armor for the foot, usually consisting of articulated plates ending in a toecap.

Each sabaton will cover the Front/Top of the Ankle/Foot and the Back of the Heel/Ankle. The Bottom or Sole of a sabaton will always be composed of the base leather or canvas to which the armor plates are riveted or sewn. Any strike landed by an enemy to the Bottom/Sole of the Ankle/Foot AoD will lose only one (1) point of damage penetrating it, and it will have a DR of only one (1), offering no further protection once that first strike gets through. The sabaton is listed by weight and cost per piece on the roster, individually so the character may buy either one sabaton to wear on one Ankle/Foot or two to wear them on both Ankles/Feet (player’s discretion).

Plate sabatons made their appearance sometime during the middle of the 1300’s, remaining in common use throughout the 14-1500’s. In the early 1300’s, the foot was defended by mail or scales. Milanese armor from the 1400’s generally used mail for the defense of the foot rather than the sabaton, despite the fact that armor made in nearly every other region of Europe adopted the sabaton long beforehand.

41) The Leg Harness entry refers to all of the pieces of plate armor worn to defend a knight’s leg, This is an ensemble, a complete set of plate armor to protect the entire leg from the top of the Thigh to the toes, consisting of a cuisse, poleyn and lamés (connecting plates), greave or shynbald, and sabaton.

Each leg harness covers the Front & Back of the Thigh, the Front & Back of the Knee, the Front & Back of the Knee, and the Ankle/Foot with the exception of the sole of the Foot. BUT the player will need to read the descriptions for the individual pieces so he can understand how they fit together in game terms, as some of them grant bonuses to certain areas and others do not exactly fit into the system of BP’s and AoD’s adopted for purposes of the game.

The leg harness is listed by weight and cost per leg on the roster, individually so the character may buy either one set of harness to wear on one Leg or two to wear them on both Legs (player’s discretion).

The defense of the knee, the poleyn, was attached either to the cuisse directly (usually before 1350) or articulated using lamés to create a moveable joint. The latter half of the 1300’s saw also the development of full greaves or shynbalds used to defend the shin and lower leg, and sabatons for the defense of the feet.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Shields Size Wt. Cost
1 Buckler Strong 0.14 1.5 £0. 10d. 3fg.
Proof 0.14 1.75 £0. 1s. 1d. 1hp.
Double Proof 0.14 2 £0. 1s. 4d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 0.14 2.5 £0. 1s. 7d.
2 Common Round wood 0.52 10.25 £0. 2s. 2d. 1hp.
steel-bound 0.52 12.25 £0. 3s. 6d.
Strong 0.52 18 £0. 11s. 7d. 1hp.
Proof 0.52 22.5 £0. 14s. 6d. 1hp.
Double Proof 0.52 26.75 £0. 17s. 3d. 1fg.
Triple Proof 0.52 31.25 £1. 0s. 2d. 1fg.
3 Kite wood 0.7 10 £0. 4s. 8d. 3fg.
steel-bound 0.7 12.5 £0. 6s. 2d.
4 Heater, large wood 0.52 5.75 £0. 3s. 5d. 3fg.
steel-bound 0.52 7.5 £0. 3s. 10d. 1hp
Strong 0.52 6 £0. 4s. 7d. 1hp.
Proof 0.52 7.5 £0. 4s. 10d. 1fg.
Double Proof 0.52 9 £0. 5s. 9d. 3fg.
Triple Proof 0.52 10.5 £0. 6s. 9d. 1hp.
4 Heater, small steel-bound 0.4 5.75 £0. 1s. 11d. 3fg.
Strong 0.4 4.75 £0. 2s. 0d. 1fg.
Proof 0.4 5.75 £0. 2s. 4d. 3fg.
Double Proof 0.4 7 £0. 2s. 11d.
Triple Proof 0.4 8 £0. 3s. 4d.
5 Lantern Shield 0.18 6 £0. 3s. 6d.
5 Pavisse 0.87 9 £0. 4s. 10d.
6 Targe(t) steel-bound 0.26 3 £0. 2s. 0d.
Strong 0.26 4 £0. 2s. 7d.
Proof 0.26 5 £0. 3s. 2d. 3fg.
Double Proof 0.26 6 £0. 3s. 10d. 1hp.
Triple Proof 0.26 7 £0. 4s. 6d. 1fg.

 

Shield Notes

For the most part, the development of White Armor eliminated the need for shields, although a buckler might still be employed. More lightly armored troops still employed shields, however, even after the more heavily armored knights and men-at-arms ceased to use them.

Some of the shields are rather heavy. A character equipped with any shield that weighs more than his “zero” ENC allowance will find that it will wear and be a constant drain on his WND when in battle.

For those shields made of wood, linden (Lime) wood is the wood of choice for shield making, although alder and poplar were used, The funerary shield of Edward the Black Prince was of poplar. All three of these are rather dense and yet light in the hand, and NOT inclined to split, unlike oak. The fibers of these timbers tend to bind around blades preventing them from cutting any deeper unless a lot more pressure is applied.

Those shields made of wood are also laminated in such a way that the grain of each layer is set perpendicular to the one above and below it, alternating so as not to give any weapon a single clear grain running through its thickness by which it might be more easily split, making it even tougher.

Apart from the early small ones, shields will be hung over the shoulder by use of a shoulder strap of leather. The strap affixed to the back of the shield by which a shield could be slung over the shoulder across the back when not needed is called a “guige”.

A guige is not essential for use with the round shield, indeed they are commonly fixed with a handle of iron under the boss, but is imperative when one is riding a mount with any type of shield.

The rider’s left hand is needed to ‘neck rein’ with, leaving him with little other than a slung shield to cover his left side. In the other hand the rider is holding his primary weapon. The art of cavalry riding requires the rider to organize his horse so that his shield-side is facing the enemy, only wheeling round in order to strike him.

1) A Buckler is a very small (relative to other shields) convex shield generally made of metal, ranging from 6in’s to 18in’s in diameter, easily hung from the belt when not in use. It is gripped in an off-hand fist and makes an excellent tool for Parrying or Blocking an opponent’s weapon in the melée, enhancing a punch by using the boss in the center or making a Rim Strike at a foe, usable but not the best for, and rather a poor tool for Shield Bashing. It’s size makes it about worthless for cover against missile weapons, but allows the user enough freedom of movement that he can still Grapple his opponent without penalty or hindrance.

Bucklers were much more widely used, historically, than is commonly known, enjoying a long period of popularity – from 1100 to 1600.

Use of a buckler provides the same protection to the Outside AoD of the Wrist/Hand BP area as plate of the same metal strength or Proof, and is an exception to the prohibition against multiple layers of plate insofar as a character can wear a plate gauntlet on the hand gripping the buckler and so be doubly protected.

2) The common round shield is the same that was in use for time immemorial, dominant in Europe from 500AD, from the Spartans to the Germanic tribes at the fall of Rome, through the Dark Ages, still in widespread use in the 1100’s but largely abandoned by the 1300’s. It is a full circle, large in diameter (about 3ft.), with a hemispherical metal fixture in the center about 8-10in’s across called a “boss” designed to deflect blows away from the shield. It provides a good deal of coverage against both ranged weapon missiles and weapons in the melée. As long as one that is light enough can be found to serve the character’s needs, it provides the best cover.

3) A heater shield emerged as an abbreviated form of the kite shield after 1250, slightly convex in cross-section in the same manner but with a much shorter tail and flat across the top (as the kite shields themselves were being modified at that time). It was shrunk down first to the “large” size and then to the “small” size as the efficiency of the armor worn increased, especially for the warrior’s limbs. It is the shape of the “field” (shield) on which a coat of arms is traditionally drawn. Those made of wood will be most common (seen in the hands of most NPC soldiers/knights), usually overlaid with leather, though some will incorporate additional layers of canvas, gesso and/or parchment.

At the player’s option and no extra cost, the heater shield may be cut with a notch on the inside top corner which is designed for use as a lance rest to help guide the lance in battle or at the tourney, in addition to any rest affixed to the character’s cuirass or breastplate.

The term “heater” as a descriptive label is a scholarly one coined in the 19th century, based on the similarity of the shield’s shape to that of an old-style flat-iron.

4) The kite shield is round at the top and tapers from there to a point like a child’s kite or upside-down teardrop, slightly convex in cross-section, with a series of leather straps laid out in a square on the inside so it could be held cross-wise so the tail could hang down and protect the leg when mounted, or length-wise for use on foot in the melée, as needed. The tail can be made come to either a pronounced point or a rounded point (player’s discretion).

It was used primarily from the 900’s to the 1200’s

5) A lantern shield is a very unusual weapon/shield whose design was born of the need to protect one’s self from the increasingly frequent night time muggings. It had so many different uses included in it’s design that it might be called a medieval Italian version of the Swiss Army knife.

It was based around a small metal buckler roughly 1ft. in diameter. The center of the shield holds a hook arrangement, so that the lantern that gives this weapon its name can be carried, along with a flap or hinged shade used to hide the lantern’s light. In essence, upon being attacked in the dark of night, the shield holder flips the lantern shade open to dazzle and blind the opponent.

The buckler base of the shield was affixed to the forearm by a leather strap; in addition, a metal gauntlet was built into the far side of the shield from the strap, and affixed with gatlings in the shape of long spikes parallel to the metacarpal surface of the gauntlet there are serrated like a sword-break to help catch and break enemy blades. Beneath this odd complex of shield and spiked glove, a long blade extends from the edge of the shield by roughly 1ft., parallel to the arm, extending also from the opposite edge of the shield to the wearer’s elbow (about 6-8in’s). On the face of the shield near the center, a spike was affixed to be used for short thrusts. The spike and rear blade extending from the shield’s edge at the wearer’s elbow will have the characteristics of a dirk (a hiltless knife), while the blade extending forward from the gauntlet will have characteristics equal to a dagger, however, due to the fact that the blades are fixed to the shield as a base, they will be difficult at best to use for any other purpose than Thrust attack-actions, and Parry and Block defenses. The gauntlet will be of plate with articulated fingers.

The lantern shield will be represented by a single specialty skill that will cover all uses for attack and defense. IF a character has a common shield of some sort (common round, kite, heater, etc.) in addition to the lantern shield, both skills together will be considered to occupy only one of the character’s (AWA) skill-slots.

The lantern shield was used in Italy between the 16th and 17th centuries both for attack and defense. During this period in Italy fencers sometimes carried lanterns to dazzle their foes, and some fencing schools trained their students to use such tactics.

6) A Pavisse is a convex, rectangular shield, almost man-sized, with rounded corners and a leg hinged at the center top of the back which unfolds so it can stand on its own, providing stationary yet portable free-standing cover, especially for archers, especially crossbowmen, on the battle field to protect them while they reload their weapons, especially during sieges.

Particularly large mobile shields called mantlets will be made of wood slats or woven withies and mounted on wheels wheeled out onto the field of battle during a siege to protect several archers at once.

7) A targe (“TARJ”) or target (“tar-JHAY”, also targa, or rondella in Italian) is a small wooden shield with a leather cover and leather or metal trim. Some will also be covered with metal studs or even spikes. Unlike bucklers, targes are worn on the arm in the same manner as a typical shield. They were also usually flat rather than convex. Though associated with the Scots, the word “targe” actually comes from small “targets” placed on archery practice dummies. Some forms of medium sized steel shields from the Renaissance are often classed as targes. In England in the 1500s & 1600s, “target” was a common term applied to any small shield.

Medieval armor, even armor meant for war, was often decorated when the knight was wealthy enough to pay the enormous price such embellishment commands. Part of the reason for this decoration is to display status and wealth, but another was the fact that such a display can save the owner’s life.

Killing knights faced as opponents is NOT the rule for battle in the medieval game world. War is the knights’ means of making a living, of earning the means for maintaining themselves in the style that is expected of them. In war, a knight wearing an expensive harness is captured rather than killed, first because knights tended to see themselves as all members of the same fraternity, as a single class regardless of origins or an exclusive brotherhood, but secondly because a rich suit of armor is a good indication that the knight has money to pay a ransome. It is more in the financial interest of the capturing knight to take him alive and demand a ransom than to slay him outright and lose the ransom. Richly decorated armor, as well as fine horses, can be confiscated from a beaten foe. As a courtesy to the members of their own class, these are usually held as security until purchased back for the cash value.

Major developments in armor embellishment during the 1300’s included intricate engraving, adding brass, bronze or latten trim to the edges of plate pieces. Sometimes this trim was further embellished by the engraving of mottoes or simple patterns or, seldom, embossed to further accentuate it, or the contrasting metals might be used for contrast with inlay in conjunction with engraving, especially in areas that were not critical to defense.

The use of colored leather for strapping was popular, also. and coordinating the use of heraldic color schemes with colored strapping was used to create a rich variety of colors and textures in a single combatant’s war harness.

Fine armor and horse both contribute to communicating this intent on the battlefield, though it will not always be effective. At Agincourt more than 1,500 knights were slain outright following the battle. Some fall short of the mark – a knightly foe can be stripped of his armor and weapons and his steed rounded up after the battle, fair compensation for any loss of ransom.

This will likely be the fate awaiting many of the poorer knights on the battle field, as they tend to carry all their worldly wealth with them in the form of war harness and steed, no lands to provide income to pay a ransom.