Troubador, Minstrel and Jongleur

The name Troubador comes from the root “trobar” meaning “to find” or “to invent” in the langue d’oc of the Occitan region of southern France. Trouvere is another name for the same trade not as well known, coming from the root “trouver” meaning “to find” or “to invent” in the langue d’oil of northern France. The Troubadors and Jongleurs sang in French, the langue d’oc of Provence, as a matter of course.

Count Guilhelm VII of Poitiers was the virtual creator of the Troubadors’ signature style of poetry and lyric showcased by this trade. His court was a magnet for free-living young nobles (with no hopes to inherit), and his court was a school for Troubadors. Thus, Troubadors were at least theoretically noble, with a knightly background, as opposed to those for whom song provided a living, a profession. Many of the greatest of the trade were humble in origins, however.

By virtue of their poetic gifts, they gradually developed a fraternity equivalent to one of the chivalric orders, though much more open and with wider ranging social influence. Their members enjoyed exceptional privileges of speech and criticism, they became living examples of the Provencal ideal of “paratge”, essentially enjoying an equality based upon merit, or “prets”, rather than social rank, power and riches. Their “paratge” also carried with it connotations of a gallant, generous, and open-handed lifestyle. Thus, the practice of giving largesse began among the Occitan nobility of southern France, the beginning of the movement towards “courtoisie”, the new gentle manners and the ideals of courtly love which were well established by 1150, with which the arts of the Troubadors and their poetry were deeply intertwined.

The great Troubadors of the medieval era drew upon the continuing tradition of the highly esteemed court performers of late antiquity. During the 8th – 10th centuries (Carolingian era) they suffered a fallow period, a decline in favor, during which they were even  treated as déclassé, being forced to rub  elbows with the rougher wandering performers.

As those fallow centuries wound, on the old songs and recitations were expected as always but the old court players were put in a position where they had to become entertainers of a more general sort as well, and more importantly consorted with that socially disenfranchised lot by necessity: jugglers, and various sorts of acrobats; mimes, mummers and players; and during that time forced to widen their portfolio of skills to include dance. No longer privileged poets, singers, and musicians, but dancers, jugglers, clowns, acrobats – even animal trainers and bear-leaders. Even when they came back to prominence, the association with lesser players and entertainers was never lost.

Some of the blurring of their old position came as a result of the nature of their work. Much of the music they played and recitations were attended by other performers. Reciting ballads and narrative poems was done to musical accompaniment. Ballads were given their name based on the fact that were accompanied by a Balla – a type of dance. Cansos were always sung solo, but often also accompanied by the vielle, especially by an accompanying Jongleur.

The 10th century saw a resurgence in respect for these performers. After the resurgence of the musician’s craft and society, Troubadors rose in social prominence again, being distinguished above the Jongleurs and especially Players, Acrobats and other performers in social rank. The return of the Troubador to the position of esteemed court musician, raised the status of his fellows in the craft, the Jongleurs consequentially, as well.

The use of the langue d’oc, the persistent pagan themes, and the combining the traditional court poet and folk singer with the ideal of pure love as the driving force of the universe made for a wide appeal for the Troubador’s work among all walks of life.

In the medieval era of the game there were still a number of pagan practices tolerated, made to coincide with Church holidays to supplant the pagan gods. Girls still twined flowers in their hair and planted May-trees, and ventured forth to the wood to cut green boughs for the halls, and free may courtships which made June weddings popular, often times a Queen of the May was chosen, all left from the Spring rites of Ostara, from which Easter was derived, though a different sort of commemoration entirely was substituted.

Poems and songs are sent to crusaders across the sea to bolster morale, lofty in vein, full of high ideals to remind the troops that for which they were fighting. For his own part, however, the noble origins of the Troubador’s art limit the venues with which he is generally satisfied to work. He considers his presence in a court to be patronage for the esteem of the host, rather than receiving the patronage of that host. The root of the Troubador name harkens back to their true claim to fame, which was their beautiful inventions in poetry recited to mood music and lyric for song, both of which promoted the new gentle courtly manners or courtoisie but also, even more importantly, the Joi d’Amor – the Joy of (courtly) Love.

The fin amor was at the heart of the Troubadors’ works of poetry and music. It was a set of values, a state of mind based on the progressive sublimation of desire and exaltation/reverence of la domna – women, coinciding and inspired in part by the growing cult of Mary. Guilhelm created a courtly, secular & worldly mystique surrounding women. L’amor courtois was an elaborate game, Joy, Joi de Vivre, was highly regarded. One of the conventions of the game was that the Troubador was never to name the lady who inspired him in verse or lyric, only ever to allow the audience subtle clues now and then. It was love between equals. Love was treated like art, made a game on a very high level, to be played by two equal partners. But there were rules to l’Amour courtois, the fin amor. Viscountess Ermingarde of Narbonne was renowned for her beauty and gentility and entertaining many troubadors in her palace, one of whom was Peire Rogier, who fell for her. When she felt she was in danger of reciprocating those feelings, she dismissed him with regret.

The Joi d’Amor of the Troubadors was seen as a difficult and ennobling quest. It was a sublimated erotic mystique that could inspire mortal ecstasy of spirit – rarely reached and a constant trial to attain. In Provence it was regarded as equivalent to the purifying ordeals of crusade or pilgrimage which would insure salvation & heavenly reward.

“Perfect love is joy, but likewise it is unease and restraint.”

While granted latitude in speech, reprisals were not completely unknown. Husbands who resented the Troubador’s attention to their wives became Jaloux and were marked for their lack of courtoisie.

The Troubadors and the courtoisie of the new gentle manners and society they represented with their arts which were also being promoted at court by the strong Church contingent responsible for the day to day work of the government raised the bar on the nobility. Simple nobility of blood was no longer sufficient, but nobility of spirit was looked for. The ardimen of the knight, the bravery and courage by which he lived, was what had been needed to carve his feof or kingdom. By errantry and brave deeds he had once shown his love for the Lady of his choice. But wisdom, knowledge, and ‘happy learning’ or a bright intellect encouraged with the new courtly manners grew to be more important. “He who is correct, pleasing, of good manners, liberal and courtly and without boorishness” became many times more valuable than the knight and his ardimen. How should a good Lady give her love on the strength of a single virtue? A bit of the commoner’s common sense can be seen in the sentiment that errantry was a dangerous way to win a lady, and that it was obviously better to stay by one’s chosen lady’s side and show courtliness, than to go away on errantry and return later with tales of having been brave and courageous. Ardimen deprived of wisdom and culture yielded the basest boorishness. That their manners should be impugned many of the rougher lords resented. Not all welcomed the new gentle courtly ways.

Much was made in the works of the noble among the Troubadors of the juxtaposition of the heroic and the courtly, or the mixing of the two generally believed to be mutually exclusive in a noble knight, the successful warrior and lover at the same time. It was all part of the game and treated very playfully, because the Troubador-Knights were very well aware what a walking paradox they were. They were part and parcel of the playfulness that permeated their trade’s Joi de Vivre, joy in living, and its demands of pleasant good company. Court life demanded the grace of good company, those of a goodly disposition. In English parlance, the greater part of the service rendered was in “making good cheer”. The Troubadors and Jongleurs embodied that commandment, and all the various monkey trainers and bear leaders, acrobats, players, and the like who shared their company did well to keep that fact firmly in mind.

Noble patrons with courts to take part in who were disposed to the tenets of courtly love, where the Troubadors and Jongleurs could gather, were difficult to find. The Troubadors’ standards were high. While they might ply their trade for anyone who enjoyed their work, briefly, they were very discerning about the courts where they would settle in, to which they would lend their own reputations. This makes them disposed to travel in the same vein and generally speaking in the same company as the rest of the disenfranchised players and entertainers forsaken by the Church. Unlike the other entertainers, however, the Troubador and his Jongleur are also content to stay put when they find the environment they require to support their art.

Whether resident in a particular court or traveling from court to court, the Troubador is often accompanied by his “Joglar” or Jongleur to provide him with a musical setting for his words, his recitations, and sang his verses in public. The Jongleur was obviously of a lower class. Over time the distinction between them blurred, especially in the eyes of the uneducated public, but only the needier/poorer of the Troubadors traveled alone and filled the role of the Jongleur for themselves. However, for a Troubador to be called Jongleur was to be down-graded to a sword-swallower, monkey-trainer – even a Mountebank, an insult to his honor and greater skills and learning.

The Jongleur was the Troubador’s man and expected to be supported as such. What truly made the difference between the two was the talent to compose their own songs and poetry, in addition to the fact that the Jongleur was far more of a common entertainer, not so aware of or enmeshed in the society and personalities of the court. By showing that talent, cultivating it under the guidance of an established Troubador mentor, the development of that talent and the show of his own originality earns the Jongleur the rank and title of a true Troubador. That rank carries with it a whole new set of social responsibilities, however. The leap from one to another, really is a whole apprenticeship, and one only to be granted to those who have an original Talent and a Muse (in game terms), as well.

Richard the Lionheart was considered a hero of poets & romancers, counted himself among the society of Troubadors, one of their brotherhood. Limoges in the Occitan was one of the most important centers for musical studies in the West, greatly influencing Church music and liturgical drama. A school of music was established in Cordova in the 9th century that flourished through the 11th century.

Count Eble II, Lord of Ventadour, outlived his friend Count Guilhelm VII. He had followed Guilhelm’s lead in keeping a similarly liberal court and maintaining a school for Troubadors. His sobriquet was “The Singer”. He presided over his famous school for the 40 years of his reign. Castle Ventadorn was one of the great centers of Provençal culture. His hospitality was lavish, a friendly rival to Guilhelm’s patronage of poetry and song in Poitou. Bernard de Ventadour (member of the household, not the family; mother was a baxter, father an archer), had the opportunity to cultivate and refine his art at the court school of Castle Ventadorn. He had sensitivity and power of expression making him one of the greatest poets of the Middle Ages, only slightly lower than “The Master troubador” Guiraut de Borneilh, favorite of connoisseurs.

One Castilian court employed a number of performers in 1293, during the era called Convivencia, when Jews, Christians, and Muslims dwelt in peace together.

13 Moors (including 2 women singing ‘profane’ songs and dancing)

12 Christians

1 Jew

Many of these singer-musicians were women, and they were much in demand in both Christian and Muslim courts in Spain, Jongleuresses alongside the Jongleurs.

As among the knights who were expected to aspire to the ideals of Chivalry, many who pursued the Troubador craft fell short of it’s gentle courtly manners and the ideals of the fin amor. Cercamon and Marcabru were two of the truly great Troubadors. Cercamon is credited with having been Marcabru’s mentor, he having been mature and Marcabru only in his 20’s when they met. Though one of the brighter stars of the trade, Marcabru didn’t like Count Eble The Singer, for he felt his craft was too shallow & frivolous, lacking in the Troubador’s true heart and the idealism of the Joi d’Amor, and didn’t hesitate to express his sentiment, discounting him as an aristocratic dilettante in contrast to Guilhelm of Poitou. In Marcabru’s opinion, Jaufré Rudel, Prince of Blaye, was a polished Troubador to be admired, another light among those of the craft. He sang poignantly of his amor de lohn, his faraway love. With his blunt coarse ways and artist’s volatile temperament, it is not surprising Marcabru was killed by the castellans of Guyenne whom he much maligned. He fell far short of the courtly ideals of the trade. Bertrand de Born, a Warrior-Troubador, was considered a member of the petty-nobility through the marriage of his brother to the daughter of the Viscount of Lastours. He came to share the lordship of Hautefort with his brother and ended up driving his brother and sister-in-law out – a dastard and a  blackguard at heart.

Lent was the slack season for the society of Troubadors, their performances forbidden by the Church for its duration. They used this time to gather themselves all together in a great convocation in Limoges to exchange ideas, learn new songs and styles.

The GM should make at least one such convocation available for the PC Troubadors, Minstrels, Jongleurs and other professional performers to attend every year. It should be specially situated in a warmer climate with more relaxed social values where there is a famous court school such as that at Limoges to host them.

Here SP’s should be readily available for the character who seeks them out and spends his time playing and studying and learning as opposed to simply carousing. The PC attending such an affair for the benefit of his craft should be allowed 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, or full (AWA) in SP’s per day dependent on how much of the day the PC wants to spend in pursuit of his craft.

Due to the saturation of the vicinity with his colleagues, the money-making opportunities the character will have available will only yield one-tenth the normal amount he could normally expect to receive.

The lute and the viol were the instruments best loved by the Troubadors, but a wide variety of instruments in use, including the double flute called the Chalumeau, cornette, lyre, zither, dulcimer, pipes, harp, rackett, mandolin, flute, tibia, syrinx, viol, fiddle, trumpet, and more. The player will please note that in order to cultivate a Voice skill worthy of performing, the Troubador, Jongleur, or Minstrel character must be provided with a Talent for it in Chapter 3. A Jongleur may get away without a Voice Talent, but it is required for a Troubador.

Except for the harp and zither, all medieval musical instruments were essentially Moorish. Moorish music itself exerted a strong influence, as well. The ancestor of the viol was Persian, but the Arabs are the ones who invented the bow. The castanets so important to musical rhythms and dance in Spain were Andalusian, predating the Arab conquest, the Roman era. They were commonly used by Troubadors and Jongleurs in France to accompany dances.

In addition to the more familiar tradition already described there was another, a Latin trend and Provençal which developed parallel to rather than interdependent with that of the Troubadors, and appealed to a different audience. These were the Goliards, also called Vagantes, who were wandering scholars, writing Troubador lyrics but in Latin, even writing colloquial ribald songs in what was referred to as “dog-Latin”. Some were runaway priests, some even defrocked, while some were students of the universities having taken only minor orders but who had abandoned their studies. They were restless fringe-dwellers and, as such, they were commonly found among the lowest of company.

The Goliards appealed only to the educated who would understand their Latin lyric, and had none of the Troubadors’ classical imagery, as found in the Latin trend of the scholars from whose company they descended. In contrast to the Troubador’s courtly love and praise of women, the Goliards treated them harshly and sourly in their lyrics, in much the same way as the Church did, which mellowed to simple cynicism in their regard over time. Thus their work was really only popular among the scholastics and the members of the clergy.

With their limited audience and appeal, the Goliards had no real impact on the popular entertainment, where the Troubadors became its focus due to their wider appeal.

The GM will have to judge for himself whether he wishes to make this aspect of the trade available. Any social circle will be limited essentially to the clergy and the religious houses and universities and the towns that depend on them.

Of the performers presented in this description, Minstrels are far more in tune with the commoners. The works of the Troubador had there definite appeal to the common folk, but the company of common folk did not appeal so much to the Troubador. Where the Troubador is respected and entertained in noble circles in much the same manner as a Courtier, their mark of distinction being the culture of courtly love and their original compositions in support of the fin amor and Court of Love, the Minstrel is a collector of news or gossip, folktales, histories, poetry, and songs, but only rarely of his own making. Where the Troubador is required to have a Talent (if not a Muse), the Minstrel requires neither, Minstrels represent a simpler, more common rendering of the Troubador or Jongleur, certainly without the high ideals and grace. This by no means indicates any lack of manners or Social Graces on the part of the Minstrels, however. Gossip mongers and tale spinners, their collections of tales center on the heroic histories showcasing the kings and warriors of old and their epic struggles with their great enemies and their archetypical romances, carrying on much more as the heirs of the tradition of the old Bards, as Witches are to the traditions of the Druids. The common inn or tavern, at best a nice House of Call, playing for his bed and board. or playing on a street corner for coin is the most likely venue for a Minstrel. Though the more successful Minstrels can be found in the retinues of knights and the households of nobles, or in the role of “waits” on retainer in towns for their faires and other public celebrations, until they tire of their travels, they are wanderers at heart. They are not so fussy about the character of their employer, where a Troubador must find a patron who wishes to foster his philosophy of courtly love and graces.

The Minstrel’s position in society is much more fluid that that of a Troubador. While he may have ready access to lesser nobles and the wealthy in the towns, he does not have the access to the upper echelons of society which are the circles to which the Troubadors keep. The Minstrel’s unique social position and the content of the songs and poetry he collects and performs allows him to associate with the folk of all walks of life.

The Troubador, Jongleur, Minstrel and the rest of their entertaining associates are very social creatures. Though not so much the Mountebank, they are concerned with maintaining a good reputation and a circle of friends and associates and acquaintances to help them maintain it. They do not so much depend on navigating the sometimes treacherous waters of social intrigue or gleaning secrets and keeping a map of relationships as someone like a Courtier or Rogue. Though gregarious, they are for the most part wanderers who will only settle where there is an  atmosphere conducive to their arts (Troubador or Jongleur) or when they are tired and ready to retire (Minstrel or Mountebank). While they develop a wide social circle of friends and acquaintances, they do not have the social resources for gleaning anything more than common news, rumor and gossip. The news gathering aspect is one that the Minstrel will focus upon in  plying his trade. This resource is not critical to the pursuit of the trades of any other of the entertainers.

In game terms, these characters will all have social circles in the strata of society in which they were raised, of which their parents are a part, and one also for their trade. The social circle may be tapped in the same manner and following the same rules presented for that of a Courtier (above) or Rogue (as follows).

Each of these social circles may consist of up to (CHM) + (BTY att. mod.) + TR members. These may be assigned prior to active game play or assigned as play progresses and the PC’s travels.

To maintain his friendships and associations, whether their services are needed or not, the character must contact every one of these one way or another no less than once every season, around the major holidays of the seasons (spring sowing, midsummer, harvest, midwinter) will be expected. The longer the character neglects of the people in his circle. the more they will come to believe they have been dispensed with or forgotten and require the relationship to be reestablished with conciliatory words and gifts to continue the relationship

To maintain his public image, the Troubador and Jongleur  must keep current with fashions (which will change slowly, only a detail here or there every three to five years) and maintain his wardrobe for public appearances. The garments in which the character makes public appearances should be made of some goodly fabric, though not so fine as to test the sumptuary laws or lead his audience to believe he is TOO successful and in no need of their patronage, or even their largesse. The character should also always wait until he has a suitable performance to premier any new clothing, such as some great Revel like Midsummer or Midwinter where he will make the greatest impression. These things are far more important to the Troubadors, who are creatures of the courts, and to the Jongleur, also, but he is of a lesser rank, so somewhat cheaper to maintain. A good impression for a Minstrel is important, especially on the occasions that he is invited to play before a lord, but he is far more in tune with the common folk and so can usually make do with less finery.

Two or three short years of being stewed and scrubbed in harsh lye soap wears the fabric down and fades colors. The best of those surviving can be maintained for casual wear around the house if no company is expected, or passed on to one’s Jongleur. To perform in such clothing would result in a poor reception by his audience, diminishing his reputation. Otherwise, old garments should be passed to family members who are not as well off, or failing that, to those in his social circle who would benefit from them, or to his favorite religious foundation to distribute to the needy. Preference should always be shown to blood relatives in any event, unless the character has a distinct reason not to do so (Bad Blood, etc.).

Due to their great cost, due to the yardage of fabric in them, cloaks will be the most seldom replaced. The slippers of the sort worn by the upper crust and the wealthy and commonly worn in their stone paved halls, will be made of fine but heavy cloth and will need to be replaced after a month of use due to their vulnerability to wear. Hard-soled shoes and boots such as are worn for travel on the roads will last far longer, with proper care, perhaps longer than they will be in fashion, so that they may have to be given away so a newer style can be purchased. To protect their shoes and to keep the hems of full-length garments from dragging in the muck of the streets, pantofles are commonly worn over good shoes and slippers when out of doors.

Like any wandering performer, the skills of the Troubador, Jongleur or Minstrel will be of great use when the character is running low on coin or feels the need for a greater cushion, for their skills will be valued and in demand. The halls of the wealthy, the manors, and the castles everywhere, taverns, inns and houses of call will generally welcome the skills of the entertainer to divert the residents/owners and their guests and patrons after their suppers, but these characters may also take their talents to the streets and squares, especially on market days and during faires. By passing the hat, tin cup, wooden bowl or the like during or after a song or two to prompt the generosity of passersby the character may accumulate ready coin.

GM’s Notes

The GM should make sure that any and all Troubador PC’s understand that playing on the streets for the common crowd will only be an option to those who are down on their luck and more concerned about keeping their bellies full and themselves clothed than about their reputations. If their reputation has not been sullied already, being seen to play in the streets or common taverns and inns like a minstrel will surely bring them down socially.

 The value of the gratuities received will be (CHM att. mod. + BTY att. mod.) + (DV of most difficult piece of music successfully performed)] with a bonus based on the character’s Player SL, in pence. This amount will be increased by (d5 + 5) pence for Troubador characters for every LoA in TR attained, but only when they are being retained by a nobleman for his hall to entertain his guests. For Minstrels this will be (d5) per LoA in TR, and only when they are playing for the patrons of an inn or house of call. Jongleurs will receive no such bonus due to TR.

To gather these gratuities the character will have to play for no less than 2 hours, minus [(CHM att. mod.) + (BTY att. mod.) + (Instrument AV)] minutes. If he is interrupted, the money will be proportional; half the time will yield only half the money.

After the required interval the character should take his earnings and move on to another ward of the town  in order to keep filling his purse. If he does so he will reap the same amount in coin each time,  BUT if he chooses to stay where he is and continue to perform there, each time the above-mentioned interval passes, he will find that his earnings will have decreased by half; so that, after the second interval passes at the same location, he will get 1/2 the original sum; after the 3rd interval passes he will find only 1/4th the original sum; after the 4th interval he will have only 1/8th the original amount, and so on.

Regardless of any further money that the character might stand to make in that location, after the performer has stayed for (LoA) intervals, the locals themselves will have tired of him and will make sure he understands it is time for him to move along, and very likely at that point they will have fetched the local constable of beadle to make the point for them.

When playing in the streets or squares for the general public, the Minstrel may glean the above amount only in heavy traffic areas and/or while heavy traffic periods endure (GM’s discretion).  If the heavy traffic continues longer than the required interval for which the character must play to garner the stated amount of coin, he should be allowed to continue to play, as many as (LoA) intervals in a row without any decrease in the amount of coin he earns. The character should be allowed to continue to play and garner gratuities without a change in location in the common room of an inn or house of call or one of the more popular taverns, as the patrons come and go, during similar heavy traffic periods.

In the case of a private hall such as in a wealthy patron’s home, manor or castle hall, or even a house of call or inn catering to the needs of the wealthy, the residents or patrons will call for the character to remain and continue to play each time the interval defined above passes, regardless of LoA, BUT only so long as the Encounter Reaction continues to be positive, just as long as the host and guests want to him to continue, possibly well into the night.

If the character does well and is commanded to perform multiple times during the evening, the GM should make a check to see whether the character is invited to remain the week, or a fortnight, or a month (GM’s discretion, based on the Encounter Reaction the morning following, not including any of the penalties accumulated the previous evening for multiple performances).

For the purposes of the Encounter Reaction, the score will be reduced by the number of times the character has performed already each time he is called back, until they are bored of him (the reaction turns neutral), ie. -1 the first time, -3 the second time, -6 the third time, -10 the fourth time, -15 the fifth  time, and so on.

Regardless of the length of the engagement, the gratuity offered afterwards will be enhanced according to the class and station of the patron who is employing him. The figure quoted above should be raised by 25% (x 1.25) for every station of the client above Wealthy Merchant on the Townsman Commoners stations, and from there continuing to count upwards from Knight on the noble stations table. In this way, the GM starts with +50% (x1.5) for any noble patron, from the two stations of possible freeman patrons, and counting as high as +175% (x 1.75).

For example, for the lucky Troubador or Minstrel whose services the king specifically conveys a request for, whose CHM att. mod. is +5 and whose BTY att. mod. is +3, and Instrument AV is 38, would receive 6 shillings 8 pence after each time the king calls for him to play.

When playing in public in the streets and squares, the monies gleaned in gratuities will be hard coin. When allowed to play in an inn, tavern, or house of call, the cost of bed and board will be deducted before the rest is awarded, also in hard coin, and the character will be fed on leftovers from the common fare and allowed to doss down where ever he can find room in the common hall with the rest of the guests or in the stable with the grooms.

When playing a private hall in a townhouse, manor or castle, the character should never expect to receive coin in hand directly from the client on departure at the end of the engagement, but should expect the Steward, personal secretary or other intermediary to render payment of some sort “in kind”. Payment in coin will be common among common patrons, regardless of how wealthy they are, due to the availability of ready coin in such households, but also common among the upper classes as well when the sum is (in their view) rather small. When the performer is truly outstanding and it is obvious to them that they have received a rare treat, however, gifts are the rule in medieval society for services rendered. Some combination of goods and coin may be proffered. When providing such outstanding service to a wealthy merchant, the merchant may well give gifts of goods in his warehouse but to the amount specified in retail value, thereby saving themselves the difference between the wholesale price they paid and the retail value in coin.

If the character has been invited to remain in a private hall, inn, or house of call, or retained for a wedding celebration, holiday season, faire, feast, or other fete event that lasts more than one day, The purse for the first day will be determined as above, but will then simply be multiplied by the number of days he remains. In these cases he will receive his remuneration when he finally takes his leave. It should be impressed upon the PC that to decline a request from a host of noble blood without a sufficient excuse is an insult to the patron’s honor. He will need to be VERY careful if he does not wish to be beaten and tossed out with nothing but the clothes on his back.

If the Troubador character who is retained for an evening is accompanied by a troupe. Each type of entertainment will be evaluated separately for gratuities, but all will be given (in a lump sum if coin) to the Troubador. If there are two Troubadors or more in the group, the payment will be given to the one with the greatest social rank.

 The GM should take a good look at the passage concerning Booty in connection with determining the character’s larger, more long-term gratuities. The details on the plate and jewels and jewelry given in the chapter on Booty will enable the GM to create suitable items as gifts. In addition to this resource, the GM has a great deal of information on goods including cloth and clothing in Appendix D of this GHB I at his disposal as well.